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DR OZ Indonesian Pengobatan Penyakit Malaria Dan Pencegahan Malaria Menurut DepKes

Malaria merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh parasit (protozoa) yang dikenal dengan nama Plasmodium. Penyakit malaria banyak ditemukan di daerah tropis terutama bagian Oceania seperti Papua Nugini dan sub tropis seperti Gurun Sahara Afrika yang merupakan daerah subur untuk berkembang biaknya vector nyamuk Anopheles dan parasit plasmodium. Sehingga tidaklah mengherankan bila angka kasus malaria di daerah tersebut termasuk tertinggi di dunia. Parasit malaria ini ditemukan dalam sel-sel darah merah dari orang yang terinfeksi. Parasit tersebut menginfeksi manusia melalui perantara gigitan nyamuk betina Anopheles yang biasa menggigit manusia di malam hari. Selanjutnya parasit tersebut akan masuk ke dalam tubuh dan bersembunyi serta berkembang biak pada organ hati (liver) kemudian menginfeksi sel darah merah, menyebabkan penderita mengalami gejala-gejala malaria, dan bila tidak diobati akan semakin parah serta menimbulkan komplikasi yang beresiko kematian.

Penyebab penyakit malaria - Ada beberapa jenis plasmodium yang menginfeksi tubuh dan menyebabkan berbagai jenis penyakit malaria yakni :
  1. Plasmodium falciparum, penyebab Malaria tropika (demam tiap 24-48 jam, sangat ganas, menyebabkan komplikasi, dan sangat mematikan)
  2. Plasmodium vivax, penyebab Malaria tersiana (demamnya tiap hari ke-3),
  3. Plasmodium ovale, penyebab Malaria ovale (paling ringan dan mudah disembuhkan)
  4. Plasmodium malariae, penyebab Malaria kuartana (demamnya tiap hari ke-4)
Spesies malaria plasmodium vivax dan plasmodium ovale dapat tetap aktif pada hati yang dapat kembali aktif serta menyerang sel darah merah kembali meski tanpa gejala hingga 2 tahun (plasmodium vivax) dan 4 tahun (plasmodium ovale) setelah seseorang digigit oleh nyamuk yang terinfeksi, sehingga akhirnya orang tersebut akan sakit malaria kembali (kambuh). Jenis spesies parasit Plasmodium falciparum sering menyebabkan komplikasi yang mengancam jiwa dan dapat berkembang dengan cepat karena parasit Plasmodium falciparum sering resisten terhadap obat seperti chloroquine di banyak daerah. Sementara infeksi yang disebabkan oleh 3 spesies malaria lain (Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malaria), biasanya jarang mengancam jiwa.

pengobatan penyakit malaria, pencegahan malaria pdf,jenis penyakit malaria, pengobatan malaria, penyebab penyakit malaria, pencegahan malaria menurut depkes

pengobatan penyakit malaria, pencegahan malaria pdf,jenis penyakit malaria, pengobatan malaria, penyebab penyakit malaria, pencegahan malaria menurut depkes


Meskipun malaria termasuk penyakit yang mematikan dikarenakan parasit tersebut berada dalam sel darah merah, yang dapat menular melalui transfusi darah, transplantasi organ, atau penggunaan bersama jarum suntik yang terkontaminasi parasit, ditularkan dari ibu yang terjangkit malaria ke bayinya (sebelum atau selama masa persalinan), namun malaria tidak ditularkan dari orang ke orang melalui hubungan seksual, kontak fisik, dsb. Setelah seseorang digigit oleh nyamuk betina Anopheles atau berada di daerah endemis malaria, maka seseorang akan mengalami gejala malaria paling cepat 7-10 hari (namun umumnya lebih dari 14 hari). Gejala penyakit malaria, sebagai berikut :
  1. Gejala ringan seperti : demam tinggi, menggigil (kedinginan), berkeringat, sakit seperti flu (sakit kepala, nyeri otot, kelelahan), mual, muntah, dan diare
  2. Gejala berat (parah) seperti : mengigau, berbicara tidak terkontrol, kejang-kejang, koma (tidak sadarkan diri), dehidrasi, nafas cepat atau sesak nafas (gangguan pernapasan) akibat peradangan paru-paru, gagal ginjal, pembesaran hati (liver) bahkan menyebabkan pecahnya limpa.
  3. Anemia, tekanan darah rendah disebabkan terganggunya sistem kardiovaskular (sistem peredaran darah yang terdiri dari jantung, darah, dan pembuluh darah), penyakit kuning (warna kuning pada kulit dan mata) karena kehilangan sel darah merah akibat hemolisis (penghancuran sel darah merah) oleh parasit.
Bila anda mengetahui seseorang atau ada anggota keluarga sedang mengalami gejala malaria, maka mudah-mudahan beberapa tips berikut ini bisa sangat membantu. Yuk, silahkan anda simak 21 Cara Paling Mujarab dan Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Malaria, berikut ini :

  1. Ukur suhu penderita (cara mengukur suhu tubuh dapat anda baca selengkapnya pada artikel disini) bila terindikasi penderita mengalami demam tinggi (suhu diatas 38 ÂșC, maka lakukan tindakan untuk menurunkan demamnya dengan mengkompres dan memberikan obat seperti paracetamol. Khusus obat lainnya untuk menurunkan demam pada anak-anak bisa anda baca selengkapnya pada artikel disini
  2. Berikan vitamin B Complex, Vitamin C dan SF (Sulfas Ferrosus) untuk meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh dan mempercepat proses penyembuhan.
  3. Efektivitas obat-obatan yang diberikan dalam mengobati malaria terutama akibat parasit Plasmodium falciparum, tergantung pada resistensi parasit malaria tersebut terhadap obat-obatan tertentu.
  4. Berikan obat anti malaria yang biasa dipakai dan terbukti efektif sebagai penyembuhan penyakit malaria yakni Chloroquine (Klorokuin) misal Merk Mexaquin® produksi Konimex, Malarex® 250 mg produksi Actavis, Resochin® produksi PT. Bayer Indonesia, dsb yang merupakan obat standard. Chloroquine bisa untuk mengobati infeksi malaria Plasmodium falciparum dan Plasmodium vivax di daerah yang belum resisten terhadap chloroquine.
  5. Bila terjadi resistensi parasit Plasmodium falciparum atau Plasmodium vivax terhadap chloroquine, pengobatan akan menjadi sedikit lebih sulit. Untuk itulah penderita perlu minum obat lain yang merupakan kombinasi dari 2 obat anti malaria yakni atovaquone dan proguanil (misal merk Malarone ®). Ada 2 jenis obat ini yakni tablet dewasa yang mengandung 250 mg atovaquone dan 100 mg proguanil hidroksida dan tablet anak-anak (pediatric) yang mengandung 62,5 mg atovaquone dan 25 mg proguanil hidroksida.
  6. Selain itu, bisa juga menggunakan kombinasi dari 2 obat artemether dan lumefantrine (misal merk Coartem ® tablet produksi Novartis Indonesia). Obat ini digunakan untuk mengobati malaria yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium falciparum. Dimana 1 tablet, mengandung 20 mg artemeter dan lumefantrin 120 mg.
  7. Mefloquine (Lariam®) juga dapat digunakan untuk mengobati dan mencegah infeksi parasit malaria. Hanya saja obat ini tidak boleh dikonsumsi bila penderita memiliki riwayat depresi (penyakit jiwa lainnya), kejang, masalah irama jantung tertentu.
  8. Bila anda tidak bisa mengkonsumsi Mefloquine, maka sebagai penggantinya bisa digunakan Doxycycline. Namun obat ini tidak boleh dikonsumsi oleh wanita hamil dan anak-anak di bawah usia 8 tahun. Doxycycline, efektif untuk infeksi yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium falciparum dan Plasmodium vivax di wilayah terbatas seperti Asia yakni Thailand dan Afrika yakni Kenya. Doxycycline ini biasa digunakan bersamaan (dikombinasikan) dengan kina yang berasal dari pohon kina (Cinchona. Spp).
  9. Chloroquine dan mefloquine merupakan pilihan obat yang aman diresepkan serta digunakan pada bayi dan anak-anak dari segala usia dan berat badan.
  10. Untuk anak-anak dan balita, mintakan apoteker agar menghancurkan tablet menjadi serbuk dan memasukan pada kapsul gelatin untuk setiap dosisnya. Bila anak tidak dapat menelan kapsul atau tablet, maka setiap dosis obat pada kapsul gelatin tersebut dapat dibuka dan isi (serbuk obat) dapat dicampur dengan apel, sirup cokelat, atau jelly, agar dapat dikonsumsi si anak.
  11. Pengobatan dengan cara tradisonal bisa menggunakan daun pepaya, dengan cara : ambil beberapa lembar daun pepaya, rebus, saring airnya, lalu minum secara teratur sampai sembuh. Atau anda juga bisa mengkonsumsi obat tradisional sesuai ajaran Islam seperti : madu-propolis, habbatussauda, delima, selengkapnya mengenai khasiat lain dari obat-obatan tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
  12. Jika Malaria tidak kunjung sembuh juga maka sebaiknya penderita segera dibawa ke pusat kesehatan atau dokter untuk mendapat penanganan yang tepat. Biasanya dokter akan melihat perkembangan infeksi malaria terlebih dahulu, dan bila terlihat parah (berat) atau ada komplikasi maka akan diberikan obat malaria secara oral serta intravena (IV) seperti : Kina HCL 25% injeksi, Chloroquine injeksi. Namun bila tidak ada komplikasi, setelah diberikan obat-obatan tersebut maka demam akan berangsur turun dalam waktu 36 s/d 48 jam, dan sebagian besar parasit akan hilang dari darah dalam waktu 2 hingga 3 hari kemudian.
Pencegahan malaria :
  1. Gunakan kelambu nyamuk saat tidur, memasang kasa pada rumah, memakai pakaian tertutup (lengan panjang dan celana panjang) untuk perlindungan terhadap gigitan nyamuk.
  2. Produk yang mengandung permethrin dapat diterapkan untuk kelambu dan pakaian untuk perlindungan tambahan terhadap nyamuk.
  3. Gunakan semprotan insektisida, perangkat elektrik (perangkap nyamuk, raket nyamuk elektrik, dsb) untuk membasmi nyamuk
  4. Oleskan lotion anti nyamuk pada tangan, kaki, dsb untuk mencegah gigitan nyamuk
  5. Pengendalian vektor melalui penghancuran tempat-tempat perkembang biakan larva nyamuk dengan melakukan gerakan 3 M (menguras bak mandi, mengubur kaleng bekas yang bisa membuat genangan air, menutup wadah penampung air). Selain itu bisa menaburkan bubuk abate pada bak mandi untuk membunuh jentik-jentik nyamuk.
  6. Sebaiknya menghindari wilayah yang merupakan daerah endemis malaria. Namun bila anda terpaksa harus pergi ke lokasi yang ada malaria, maka sangat disarankan untuk minum obat sesuai dosis dan jadwal minum obat yang tepat. Karena berdasarkan kenyataan, sebagian besar orang yang terinfeksi malaria karena tidak minum obat pencegah malaria atau tidak megikuti jadwal pemberian dosis yang tepat
  7. Untuk pencegahan terjangkitnya infeksi parasit malaria, maka sebaiknya minum obat sebelum berangkat dan setelah meninggalkan daerah dimana terdapat parasit tersebut, yakni:
    • Chloroquein fosfat, mulai 1-2 minggu sebelum perjalanan ke daerah malaria dan selama 4 minggu setelah meninggalkan daerah tersebut
    • Atovaquone-proguanil, mulai 1-2 hari sebelum perjalanan ke daerah endemis malaria, setiap hari selama di daerah malaria, serta selama 7 hari setelah meninggalkan daerah tersebut.
    • Doxycycline, mulai 1-2 hari sebelum perjalanan ke daerah malaria, setiap hari selama di daerah malaria, serta selama 4 minggu setelah meninggalkan daerah tersebut
    • Mefloquine, mulai ≥2 minggu sebelum perjalanan ke daerah malaria, 1 minggu di daerah malaria dan selama 4 minggu setelah meninggalkan daerah tersebut.
    • Primaquine digunakan untuk mencegah kekambuhan dari malaria yang diakibatkan infeksi Plasmodium vivax dan Plasmodium ovale dengan gejala berulang seperti flu selama bertahun-tahun setelah terkena infeksi malaria pertama yang menandakan kambuhnya infeksi malaria kembali. Setiap hari sekali selama 14 hari setelah keberangkatan dari daerah malaria.
  1. Bila anda baru pulang dari negara di mana penularan malaria terjadi (daerah tropis atau sub sahara seperti Afrika), maka segera lakukan pemeriksaan darah di klinik kesehatan atau rumah sakit saat anda tiba
  2. Jangan bawa anak-anak dengan berat badan kurang dari 15 kg, untuk turut serta berkunjung ke daerah yang memiliki risiko infeksi malaria.

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