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Dr. OZ Indonesia Tips Mujarab Mengobati dan Mencegah Penyakit Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut (ISPA)

Salah satu dari sekian banyak penyakit yang diderita oleh masyarakat adalah ISPA (Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut). ISPA merupakan penyakit yang umum dan paling banyak diderita oleh golongan anak-anak (balita) dan merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian balita di Indonesia.Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut (ISPA) atau Upper Respiratory tract Infection (URI) merupakan penyakit infeksi akut yang terjadi dan melibatkan organ saluran pernapasan, hidung, sinus, faring, atau laring. Saluran pernapasan merupakan organ tubuh yang berfungsi sebagai saluran udara dari dan menuju paru-paru. Saluran pernapasan terdiri dari hidung, rongga telinga tengah, laring, trakea, bronkus, alveoli, termasuk pleura. Sementara Infeksi akut maksudnya adalah Infeksi yang sudah berlangsung sampai 14 hari. 

ISPA sering disalah artikan sebagai infeksi saluran pernapasan atas, padahal ISPA sebenarnya mencangkup infeksi saluran pernapasan bagian atas (mulai dari hidung) serta saluran pernapasan bagian bawah (alveoli), hal ini bisa jadi karena terjemahan URI (Upper Respiratory tract Infection) dari bahasa asing. ISPA bisa disebabkan oleh virus (pemicunya adalah virusrhinovirus, coronavirus,respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, bocavirus, Picornavirus, Micoplasma, Herpesvirus, dll), bakteri dan jamur, namun kebanyakan oleh virus (sekitar 90 %). Sedangkan infeksi akut saluran napas bagian bawah, 50 % diakibatkan oleh bakteri streptococcus pneumonia (sekitar 70-90%), sedangkan stafilococcus aureus dan H influenza sekitar sekitar 10-30%.

Secara Umum, penyakit ISPA dapat dikelompokan menjadi 2, yakni :

  1. ISPA non-Pneumonia atau dikenal masyarakat umum dengan sebutan batuk pilek. Yang dimaksud bukan pneumonia adalah jika tidak ada napas cepat, dan tidak, jadi penderita hanya mengalami batuk pilek biasa.
  2. Pneumonia, yakni bila batuk pilek disertai gejala lain seperti kesukaran bernapas, peningkatan frekuensi nafas (nafas cepat, ditemukan tarikan dinding dada bagian bawah. Penyebab kematian pada bayi dan balita akibat ISPA, mayoritas karena pneumonia. Selengkapnya mengenai pneumonia dan cara mengobati serta mencegahnya, dapat anda baca pada artikel disini

Penyakit ISPA biasanya muncul pada musim pancaroba (perubahan udara dari panas ke dingin) yang seringkali memperlemah daya tahan tubuh. Anak-anak sangat rentan terhadap penyakit ini karena daya tahan tubuhnya masih rendah. Pencemaran udara (polusi, asap rokok, dan kendaraan, polusi dari asap pembakaran kayu atau hutan yang mengandung zat-zat seperti abu,carbon, hidrogen, sulfur, dsbyang sangat berbahaya bagi kesehatan) diduga kuat menjadi pencetus infeksi virus pada saluran napas bagian atas terutama pada anak. Saluran pernapasan mulai dari hidung sampai bronkhus yang dilapisi oleh membran mukosa bersilia, akan menyaring, menghangatkan, dan melembabkan udara yang keluar-masuk melalui rongga hidung. Partikel debu yang kasar juga ikut disaring oleh rambut yang terdapat dalam hidung, sementara partikel debu yang halus akan terperangkap dalam lapisan mukosa. Akibatnya perrgerakan silia hidung menjadi lambat, kaku bahkan dapat berhenti sehingga tidak dapat membersihkan saluran pernapasan yang sudah teriritasi oleh bahan pencemar. Hal ini akan menyebabkan produksi lendir meningkat dan terjadi penyempitan saluran pernapasan oleh lendir. Selain penderita kesulitan untuk bernapas, sel pembunuh bakteri pada saluran pernapasan juga ikut menjadi rusak sehingga benda asing akan tertarik dan bakteri tidak dapat dikeluarkan dari saluran pernapasan. Sudah barang tentu akan memudahkan terjadinya infeksi saluran pernafasan.

ISPA sangat cepat menular, dan penularannya bisa terjadi karena menghirupdropletatau percikan lendir yang dikeluarkan penderita ISPAsaat bersin atau batuk. Udara pernapasan yang mengandung virus atau bakteri akan terhirup oleh orang yang sehat. Selain itu penularan juga dapat terjadi melalui kontak atau kontaminasi tangan oleh sekret saluran pernapasan, hidung, dan mulut penderita. Setelah terinfeksi, maka penderita akan menujukan gejala atau tanda-tanda terserang penyakit ISPA, antara lain:

  1. Demam (pada anak-anak, demam selama beberapa jam sampai 3 hari), batuk (kering atau berdahak), pilek (mengeluarkan lender/ingus dari hidung atau hidung tersumbat), lemas (malaise), pegal-pegal, sakit tenggorokan, banyak berkeringat, pusing, dan sakit kepala.
  2. Anoreksia (tidak nafsu makan), vomitus (muntah), photophobia (takut cahaya), gelisah, batuk, keluar sekret,
  3. Serak atau anak bersuara parau waktu mengeluarkan suara saat berbicara atau menangis
  4. Tenggorokan berwarna merah, telinga terasa sakit atau keluar cairan dari telinga
  5. Muncul bercak kemerahan seperti penyakit campak.
  6. Terkadang menimbulkan komplikasi seperti pneumonia (radang paru) dengan gejala sesak napas (napas cepat, kadang napas tak teratur), retraksi dinding dada, napas cuping hidung, sianosis, suara napas lemah. Pada bayi, bisa menimbulkan bronkhiolitis (radang di saluran pernapasan halus di paru-paru) dengan gejala sesak atau dyspnea (kesakitan bernafas), napas wheezing (mencuit-cuit), dan stridor (napas ngorok) sewaktu istirahat (tidur).
  7. Selain itu, bisa pula terjadi laryngitis (peradangan pada daerah laring atau dekat pita suara) yang menimbulkan croup dengan gejala sesak saat menarik napas, retraksi suprasternal (adanya tarikan dada), hipoksia (kurang oksigen) dan batuk menggonggong (barking cough).
Umumnya ISPA yang disebabkan oleh virus dapat sembuh dengan sendirinya tanpa pemberian obat obatan. Namun pada penyakit ISPA yg sudah berlanjut dengan gejala dahak dan ingus yg sudah menjadi hijau, pemberian antibiotik merupakan keharusan karena dengan gejala tersebut membuktikan sudah ada bakteri yang terlibat. Khusus untuk penderita anak-anak, yang perlu diwaspadai adalah pneumonia, karena dapat mengancam jiwa mereka. Oleh karena itu diperlukan pengobatan dengan antibiotik untuk mencegah terjadinya infeksi lanjutan dari bakteri. Pemberian dan pemilihan antibiotik pada penyakit ini harus diperhatikan dengan baik agar tidak terjadi resistensi bateri di kemudian hari. Bila ditemukan infeksi bakteri streptococcus misalnya pada radang telinga akut harus diobati dengan antibiotik penisilin. Pemilihan dan penggunaan antibiotik yang tepat ini dapat mempercepat penyembuhan ISPA dibandingkan tanpa pemberian obat obatan.

Bila anda atau keluarga anda diduga menderita ISPA, maka artikel berikut ini mudah-mudahan dapat membantu anda untuk menolong penderita. Yuk, simak 15 Tips Mujarab Mengobati dan Mencegah penyakit Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut (ISPA) berikut ini :

Pengobatan penyakit ISPA :
  1. Banyak istirahat dan banyak mengkonsumsi cairan (minum) termasuk balita yang mengkonsumsi ASI. Minum air putih 8 gelas atau 2000 ml per hari (remaja dan dewasa), dan untuk anak-anak (balita) minimal 600-1000 ml perhari. Hal ini dikarenakan anak yang terinfeksi saluran pernafasan dapat kehilangan cairan lebih banyak dari biasanya terutama bila demam. Pemberian minum atau cairan bertujuan untuk mencegah dehidrasi yang dapat melemahkan daya tahan tubuh anak dan dapat memperberat penyakitnya. Selain itu, pemberian cairan juga bertujuan membantu mengencerkan dahak sehingga mudah dikeluarkan agar dapat menjaga kelancaran pernapasan
  2. Meningkatkan konsumsi makanan bergizi, sayuran dan buah-buahan (berupa jus buah alami), multivitamin, untuk meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh. Pemberian makanan yang cukup dan bergizi untuk menghindari penurunan berat badan yang akan rnengakibatkan malnutrisi.
  3. Bila anak mengalami muntah, berikan makan sedikit-sedikit tapi sering dari biasanya. Untuk balita yang mengkonsumsi ASI, berikan ASI sesering mungkin.
  4. Ukur suhu tubuh anak secara rutin setiap 4 jam sekali. Cara untuk mengukur suhu tubuh pada anak
  5. Bila penderita mengalami demam dan suhunya diatas 38,5°C, kompres tubuhnya dengan air hangat (jangan menggunakan air dingin/es), atau bisa juga dengan cara memandikannya dengan air hangat, untuk membuatnya lebih nyaman. Tindakan lengkapnya sebagai berikut :
    • Untuk anak usia diatas 2 bulan sampai dengan 5 tahun, demam dapat diatasi dengan memberikan paracetamol dibarengi tindakan mengompres. Cara mengompres : celupkan kain atau handuk kecil yang bersih pada air hangat, peras seperlunya, kemudian letakkan pada dahi anak, lipatan paha, lipatan ketiak, ulangi kembali jika kain sudah dingin. Kalau anda repot, saat ini sudah banyak tersedia kompres balita misal merk : bye-bye fever, fever patch, dsb. Untuk paracetamol dapat diberikan berupa sirup obat.
    • Untuk bayi dibawah 2 bulan, bila demam maka harus segera dibawa ke pusat kesehatan (klinik atau rumah sakit).
  1. Bila penderita mengalami batuk, berikan obat batuk sirup untuk anak-anak. Bila anda ingin cara tradisional yang aman untuk meredakan batuk terutama bagi kanak-kanak, ambil 1 buah jeruk nipis, peras dan ambil airnya, lalu tambahkan 2 sendok madu, aduk hingga rata, dan minumkan 2-3 kali sehari. Cara lain : ambil sekitar 8-10 buah belimbing wuluh, cuci bersih, lalu dihaluskan. Campurkan dengan segelas air hangat dan tambahkan sedikit garam, lalu peras dan saring, minum airnya 2 kali sehari.
  2. Jika mengalami pilek, bersihkan hidung yang berguna untuk mempercepat kesembuhan dan menghindari komplikasi yang lebih parah. Untuk balita bisa menggunakan alat penyedot lendir (ingus) yang banyak dijual di apotek. Cara lain membersihkan hidung adalah dengan memakai kain bersih yang lunak, jika hidung tersumbat karena ingus yang telah mengering, jangan dipaksa untuk dikeluarkan. Coba tetesi dengan beberapa tetes air garam agar basah kembali sehingga mudah dibersihkan.
  3. Untuk penderita yang mendapat obat antibiotik, selain tindakan diatas usahakan agar obat yang diperoleh tersebut diberikan dengan benar selama 5 hari penuh. Dan untuk penderita yang mendapatkan antibiotik, usahakan agar setelah 2 hari anak dibawa kembali kepetugas kesehatan untuk pemeriksaan ulang, yang bertujuan untuk membunuh bakteri Streptococcus pneumonia, Stafilococcus aureus dan Haemophilus influenzae, antara lain :
    • Pneumonia ringan yaitu (Cotrimoxazole/Kotrimoksazol) seperti : Trimethoprim/Trimetoprim, Sulfamethoxazole/Sulfametoksazol), Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Penisillin Prokain, 
    • Pnemonia berat : Benzilpenicillin, kloramfenikol, kloksasilin. 
    • Antibiotik baru lain : Sefalosforin, kuinolon, dll
  1. Bawa segera penderita ke dokter atau klinik kesehatan, apabila setelah dilakukan perawatan di rumah, keadaan anak justru memburuk dengan gejala berikut ini :
    • Untuk anak usia kurang dari 2 bulan, dengan kondisi kurang bisa minum (kemampuan minumnya menurun ampai kurang dari setengah volume yang biasa diminumnya), kejang, kesadaran menurun, gelisah, ujung nadi membiru (sianosis). 
    • Untuk anak usia diatas 2 bulan sampai 5 tahun, selain kondisi diatas, diikuti dengan stridor, wheezing, demam dan dingin, nadi cepat atau tidak teraba, bibir atau kulit berwarna pucat,
  1. Bila anda ingin menggunakan obat-obatan tradisional lainnya untuk mengobati ISPA, bisa dengan madu-propolis, habbatussauda, dsb. Selengkapnya mengenai obat-obatan tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini

Pencegahan penyakit ISPA :
  1. Istiahat yang cukup, mengkonsumsi makanan bergizi, sayuran, buah-buahan
  2. Menerapkan pola hidup bersih dengan membiasakan mencuci tangan memakai cairan atau sabun antiseptic untuk meminimalkan kontak dengan virus penyebab ISPA.
  3. Biasakan untuk menutup mulut dan hidungnya saat batuk dan pilek. Jangan biarkan anak berhubungan dengan penderita ISPA atau bila terpaksa harus kontak dengan anggota keluarga atau penderita ISPA maka harus memakai penutup hidung dan mulut (masker)
  4. Udara kering dapat memperburuk peradangan, sehingga penggunaan oksigen dilembabkan atau humidifier pada ruangan sangat dianjurkan
  5. Memberikan imunisasi kepada balita, karena anak-anak dengan status imunisasi yang lengkap, daya tahan tubuhnya akan relatif lebih baik dibandingkan dengan anak yang status imunisasinya tidak lengkap.

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