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9 Tips Lengkap dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Gondok (Kelenjar Tiroid)

Pada artikel terdahulu, kita sudah membahas mengenai penyakit gondongan. Bagi anda yang belum sempat membaca atau mengetahuinya dapat dilihat selengkapnya pada artikel disini. Pembahasan kita pada kesempatan kali ini mengenai penyakit gondok yakni pembengkakan/pembesaran pada leher, atau biasa dikenal juga dengan penyakit kelenjar tiroid. Kelenjar tiroid merupakan kelenjar yang terletak dibawah pangkal tenggorokan, dan berbentuk seperti kupu-kupu. Fungsi kelenjar tiroid ini adalah memproduksi hormon tiroid yang diperlukan untuk mengatur metabolisme dari seluruh sel-sel yang ada pada tubuh manusia. 

Sebagian besar masyarakat kita masih belum dapat membedakan antara penyakit gondongan dan gondok. Seringkali kedua penyakit ini disebut saling terbalik bahkan tidak jarang yang menyamakan kedua penyakit ini, padahal seyogianya kedua penyakit ini sangat jauh berbeda. Untuk membedakan secara mudah kedua penyakit tersebut, singkatnya sebagai berikut : gondok merupakan penyakit yang diakibatkan pembesaran kelenjar tiroid pada leher, penyebabnya bisa karena infeksi maupun hipertiroid. Sementara penyakit gondongan akan menyebabkan pembengkakan pada bagian pipi bagian bawah ataupun dibawah telinga yang menimbulkan rasa sakit pada bagian tersebut.


Secara umum, penyakit gondok dapat disebabkan beberapa hal, antara lain :

  1. Gangguan dari kelenjar tiroid dimana kelenjar tiroid sangat aktif menghasilkan hormon sehingga di dalam darah jumlahnya berlebihan (hipertiroid) yang disebabkan TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), tiroiditis (peradangan kelenjar tiroid) dan konsumsi yodium secara berlebihan, dikenal dengan penyakit Graves.
  2. Terjadinya penurunan kinerja kelenjar tiroid dimana kelenjar tiroid sedikit sekali (rendah) memproduksi hormon (hipotiroid) atau biasa disebut penyakit hashimoto. Baik hipertiroid atau hipotiroid, dapat terjadi akibat autoimun yakni antibodi menyerang dan merusak sendiri kelenjar tiroid sehingga menyebabkan pembengkakan pada kelenjar tiroid tersebut.
  3. Kekurangan iodin (yodium) yang dibutuhkan untuk memproduksi hormon tiroid sehingga kinerja kelenjar tiroid akan menurun dan tidak normal (abnormal)
  4. Inflamasi zat tertentu yang mempengaruhi tubuh dalam memanfaatkan iodin (yodium), seperti merokok yang mengandung senyawa tiosianat dari hasil pembakaran tembakau atau obat-obatan seperti amiodarone dan imunosupresan.
  5. Infeksi bakteri atau virus yang menyebabkan penderita mengalami demam serta terasa nyeri ketika diraba.

  1. Perubahan hormon akibat pubertas, kehamilan, dan menopause. Kehamilan dan menopause diberitakan dapat menyebabkan gangguan tiroid (meskipun penyebabnya belum diketahui pasti).
  2. Faktor bawaan (keturunan), yakni riwayat anggota keluarga yang mengidap kanker tiroid atau penyakit autoimun.

Kelenjar tiroid yang membengkak bisa diketahui melalui pemeriksaan fisik sederhana yakni terlihat dengan jelas ukuran serta tekstur benjolan. Namun demikian untuk lebih memastikan penyebab pembengkakan kelenjar, maka perlu dilakukan pemeriksaan ini melalui tes darah. Disini akan diukur kadar hormon TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone atau hormon perangsang tiroid) yang diproduksi oleh kelenjar pituitari di otak. Bila dari hasil pemeriksaan diketahui kadar hormon tiroidnya tinggi, maka hal ini mengindikasikan telah terjadi hipertiroid. Namun bila sebaliknya, yakni tingkat hormon tiroidnya rendah dan TSH tinggi, hal ini menandakan bahwa penderita mengalami hipotiroid.


Gejala utama penyakit gondok kebanyakan diketahui ketika leher membesar atau terbentuknya benjolan abnormal pada leher. Adaikata benjolan tersebut semakin membesar, maka dapat memengaruhi pernapasan serta menyebabkan penderita sulit menelan. Selain itu gondok juga diyakini bisa menyebabkan infeksi telinga kronis, kehilangan pendengaran, penumpukan cairan pada telinga di bagian tengah, infeksi sinus menular, serta pendarahan pada hidung.

Beberapa gejala lain yang umumnya terlihat ketika seseorang menderita penyakit gondok adalah :

  1. Tenggorokan terasa sesak,
  2. Perubahan suara menjadi serak,
  3. Penderita kanak-kanak akan mengalami perubahan pada langit-langit dalam rongga mulut
  4. Batuk, sulit bernapas, dan terasa sakit ketika menelan.
  5. Depresi, gelisah, keringat berlebihan, gemetaran, sensitif terhadap perubahan suhu (panas/dingin), kelelahan, konsentrasi menurun, kulit dan rambut kering,
  6. Berat badan menurun, mata melotot,
  7. Tingkat kolesterol meningkat, denyut jantung menurun, pada wanita biasanya siklus menstruasi menjadi tidak teratur (lebih singkat).

Nah, bila anda menemukan anggota keluarga atau teman menderita penyakit gondok jangan buru-buru panik, yuk simak saja 9 Tips lengkap dan paling manjur mengobati dan mencegah penyakit gondok, berikut ini :

Pengobatan :

  1. Bila gondok disebabkan karena hipotiroid (kelenjar tiroid sedikit sekali memproduksi hormon) maka untuk menggantikan hormon tiroid diberikan obat seperti levothyroxine dan biasanya penderita akan mengkonsumsi obat ini dalam jangka panjang. Efek samping yang mungkin timbul seperti mual, kram pada otot, detak jantung menjadi cepat atau bahkan tidak teratur.
  2. Sebaliknya, bila gondok disebabkan karena hipertiroid (kelenjar tiroid sangat aktif menghasilkan hormon sehingga jumlahnya berlebihan) maka penderita harus mengkonsumsi obat Thionamide. Obat ini akan menurunkan hormon tiroid dengan cara menghambat proses produksinya. Efek samping yang mungkin timbul dari obat ini jika dikonsumsi dalam jangka panjang, seperti mual, nyeri sendi, timbul ruam ringan, jumlah sel darah putih menurun secara mendadak.
  3. Cara lain untuk penanganan hipertiroid adalah dengan terapi Iodin radioaktif yang akan menghancurkan sel-sel tiroid dan mengecilkan ukuran benjolan. Efek samping dari metode pengobatan ini juga bisa memicu hipotiroid (kekurangan hormon tiroid).
  4. Bila terjadi komplikasi yang disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri, selain dengan cara diatas maka penderita juga diberikan antibiotik seperti Amoxicillin (contoh : Kalmoxillin, Amoxsan), Amoksisilin dan Asam Klavulanat (contoh : Clavamox, Claneksi), antibiotik jenis Sefalosporin yakni Cefadroksil (contoh : Cefat, Longcef), Cefixim (contoh : Cefspan), dsb
  5. Bila terdapat kondisi benjolan terus membesar dan penderita mengalami kesulitan bernapas atau menelan, apalagi bila benjolan gondok sudah lama dan mengeras maka sebaiknya langsung dibawa ke dokter atau pusat kesehatan untuk mendapatkan penanganan yang tepat salah satunya dengan prosedur operasi yakni dengan prosedur pengangkatan sebagian atau seluruh kelenjar tiroid (tiroidektomi) Operasi ini juga cocok untuk penderita yang memiliki benjolan tiroid dan diduga yang mengandung sel-sel kanker. Efek samping bagi pasien yang menjalani prosedur ini seperti :  kerusakan pada saraf dan kelenjar paratiroid yang menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan suara dan gangguan pernapasan. Efek samping ini bisa bersifat sementara maupun permanen. Sedangkan kerusakan pada kelenjar paratiroid akan memengaruhi pengaturan kadar kalsium dalam darah dan tulang.
  6. Bila anda menyukai pengobatan secara tradisional/alami dapat menggunakan beberapa jenis tanaman/tumbuhan obat yang dikombinasikan seperti : temu putih dan sambiloto, benalu teh kering dan daun dewa, rumput laut seperti Porphyra tenera, rumput laut Laminaria japonica, dsb.

Pencegahan :

  1. Mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung yodium terutama yang berasal dari laut seperti : ikan, tiram, kerang, udang, rumput laut, dsb.
  2. Perbanyak mengkonsumsi sayuran hijau, sereal, gandum, serta susu sapi, namun sebaiknya menghindari sayuran yang bisa mengurangi hormon tiroksin, seperti kol, kacang kedelai, kacang tanah, kacang polong, bayam, dan stroberi
  3. Menggunakan garam beryodium saat mengolah atau memasak makanan sebagai penambah cita rasa. Standar Nasional garam yang dianjurkan adalah  mengandung yodium sebesar 30-80 ppm. Kebutuhan setiap orang akan garam yang mengandung yodium sekitar 6 gram/hari (1 sendok teh)

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