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DR OZ INDONESIA 11 Tips Mujarab dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Gondongan

DR OZ INDONESIA 11 Tips Mujarab dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Gondongan - Banyak penyakit umum yang sering menyerang anak-anak usia 4-15 tahun di seluruh dunia terutama di negara-negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Salah satu diantaranya adalah penyakit gondongan atau dalam istilah medis dikenal dengan sebutan Mumps atau Parotitis Epidemika. Gondongan disebabkan infeksi virus mumps (termasuk dalam family Paramyxoviridae / Paramyxovirus dan genus Rubulavirus) yang terjadi pada kelenjar air liur, menyebabkan pembengkakan disertai nyeri. Kelenjar air liur ini letaknya diantara pipi di sekitar rahang, dekat telinga (biasa disebut dengan kelenjar parotis). Sehingga gondongan akan menyebabkan terjadinya pembengkakan pada salah satu atau kedua kelenjar parotis. Itu sebabnya mengapa gondongan disebut juga dengan parotitis.

Masyarakat kita pun banyak yang salah menyebutkan atau menyamakan antara penyakit gondongan dan gondok. Padahal sejatinya penyakit gondongan dan penyakit gondok jelas sangat berbeda, baik gejala, penyebab, lokasi infeksi, dan pengobatannya. Gondok adalah penyakit yang disebabkan pembesaran atau pembengkakan kelenjar tiroid yang terletak di leher. Penyebabnya adalah akibat infeksi virus, bakteri, dsb maupun hypertiroid. Gondok bisa diketahui saat kita mencoba menelan ludah, dimana kelenjar tiroid akan bergerak keatas. Sementara gondongan adalah pembengkakan pada bagian pipi bagian bawah ataupun dibawah telinga yang disebabkan virus Mumps dan menimbulkan rasa nyeri (sakit) pada bagian tersebut.

Gondongan atau mumps merupakan penyakit mudah menular yang bisa menginfeksi orang sehat melalui kontak langsung melalui mulut seperti berbagi makanan, minuman, atau melalui sekret seperti air liur, tetesan aerosol dari batuk/bersin orang yang terinfeksi. Dimana saat penderita batuk/bersin, virus akan menyebar ke udara dan selanjutnya masuk melalui hidung serta menginfeksi orang lain. Itulah sebabnya banyak terjadi kasus penularan gondongan pada anak-anak yang asal mulanya dari sekolah atau tempat bermain. Namun anehnya, penyakit gondongan ini jarang ditemukan pada anak usia di bawah 2 tahun. Hal ini dikarenakan balita masih dengan usia kurang dari 2 tahun memiliki antibodi berasal dari ibunya (saat mengandung) atau ASI yang dikonsumsinya.

Seseorang yang terinfeksi virus mumps akan menular sekitar 6 hari sebelum timbulnya gejala sampai sekitar 9 hari setelah gejala terjadi. Masa inkubasi virus (waktu sampai gejala mulai terjadi) biasanya 14-25 hari, rata-ratanya 17-18 hari. Artinya ketika seseorang sehat tertular (kontak) dengan penderita gondong, baru pada 2 minggu kemudian penyakit itu akan muncul/terjadi pada orang tersebut.

Untuk mengetahui seseorang sudah terinfeksi virus Mumps ini, dapat dilihat dari beberapa gejala atau tanda-tanda umum penyakit gondongan, sebagai berikut:
  1. Tahap awal (1-2 hari), timbul gejala seperti : demam (suhu tubuh sekitar 38.5 – 39,5 °C), sakit kepala, tidak nafsu makan. nyeri pada rahang bagian belakang ketika mengunyah atau menelan bahkan terkadang serasa kaku sehingga kesulitan membuka mulut. 
  2. Terjadi pembengkakan kelenjar di bawah telinga (parotis), dimana awalnya pembengkakan hanya terjadi pada salah satu sisi (kiri atau kanan saja), namun kemudian menjadi keduanya mengalami pembengkakan (kiri dan kanan).
  3. Kadang-kadang terjadi pembengkakan kelenjar di bawah rahang dan kelenjar di bawah lidah. Bila kelenjar liur disentuh akan terasa nyeri, apalagi saat menelan makanan/minuman yang asam seperti jus jeruk.
  4. Khusus pada pria remaja dan dewasa, terkadang timbul nyeri serta pembengkakan pada buah zakar (testis) karena terjadi penyebaran virus melalui aliran darah. 
  5. Pembengkakan akibat gondongan umumnya terjadi selama 3-5 hari, dan berangsur kempis dengan sendirinya. Begitu juga halnya dengan demam yang terjadi, akan berangsur turun/membaik sehingga suhu tubuh penderita akan normal kembali.
Gondongan sebenarnya termasuk penyakit self limiting diseases (dapat sembuh sendiri tanpa diobati setelah beberapa hari) karena seyogianya virus akan dilumpuhkan secara otomatis oleh sistim kekebalan tubuh tubuh setelah beberapa hari. Pengobatan disini sebenarnya hanya untuk menghilangkan efek dari serangan virus yang menyebabkan demam dan nyeri. Namun demikian, terkadang keadaan bisa memburuk setelah sekitar 2 minggu kemudian atau saat penyakit mumps kambuh kembali. Parahnya lagi, kemungkinan besar akan menimbulkan komplikasi, diantaranya :
  1. Orkitis (orchitis) yakni peradangan pada salah satu atau kedua testis. Setelah sembuh, testis yang terkena mungkin akan menciut.
  2. Ovoritis yakni peradangan pada salah satu atau kedua indung telur. Timbul nyeri perut yang ringan.
  3. Ensefalitis atau meningitis yakni peradangan pada otak atau selaput otak. Gejalanya berupa sakit kepala, leher kaku, dan kejang. Penderita yang mengalami meningitis, kebanyakan akan sembuh total.
  4. Pankreatitis yakni peradangan pankreas, penderita akan merasakan mual dan muntah disertai nyeri perut. Gejala ini akan menghilang dalam waktu 1 minggu dan penderita akan sembuh total.
  5. Peradangan ginjal, urine sedikit kental dalam jumlah yang banyak
  6. Peradangan sendi, menyebabkan nyeri pada satu atau beberapa sendi.
Nah, bila anda atau keluarga anda atau siapa saja sedang menderita penyakit ini jangan buru-buru panik apalagi khawatir, karena berikut ini saya akan menyajikan 11 Tips paling mujarab dan manjur mengobati dan mencegah penyakit gondongan atau mumps, berikut ini :

Pengobatan penyakit gondongan (parotitis epidemika) :
  1. Faktor daya tahan tubuh sangat berperan penting untuk melawan virus, sehingga penderita dianjurkan beristirahat yang cukup. Selain itu, sebaiknya penderita tidak keluar rumah (diisolasi) sekitar 1-2 minggu sejak pembengkakan muncul guna mencegah penularan virus kepada orang lain.
  2. Banyak minum air putih (2000 ml atau 8 gelas per hari), mengkonsumsi makanan bergizi, makanan yang mengandung protein, susu, serta memberikan multivitamin yang banyak dijual bebas (misal Becombion, AD Plex, dsb) atau immunomodulator (Isprinol, Imboost, Stimuno, dsb) dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh penderita.
  3. Untuk mengurangi rasa sakit ketika menelan atau mengunyah makanan, sebaiknya mengkonsumsi makanan dengan tekstur lunak seperti bubur atau nasi tim, dan hindari memberikan minuman dengan rasa asam (misal jus jeruk, dsb) karena hanya akan menambah rasa nyeri (sakit)
  4. Bila penderita mengalami demam dan nyeri, anda  bisa memberikan obat analgetik dan antipiretik seperti paracetamol (misal merk Sanmol, Tempra, dsb) atau ibuprofen (misal merk proris, dsb).
  5. Bila masih juga terasa nyeri akibat pembengkakan kelenjar air liur, coba kompres bagian yang bengkak (daerah pipi atau di bawah telinga) dengan air hangat dan dingin (es) secara bergantian, masing-masing sekitar 5-15 menit. Untuk mengkompres dengan air hangat, gunakan handuk yang sudah terlebih dahulu direndam air hangat. Sementara untuk kompres air dingin (es), caranya adalah dengan memasukan beberapa buah es batu pada handuk/lap lalu tempelkan pada bagian yang bengkak.
  6. Pada penderita yang mengalami pembengkakan testis, sebaiknya banyak istirahat dengan berbaring di tempat tidur. Untuk mengurangi rasa nyeri, kompres pada area testis yang membengkak tersebut dengan kompres dingin (es).
  7. Penderita yang mengalami serangan virus pada organ pancreas (pankreatitis), dengan gejala mual dan muntah sebaiknya dirujuk ke rumah sakit untuk mendapat cairan infus. Begitu juga untuk mencegah terjadinya orkitis (peradangan testis) pada penderita remaja dan dewasa, bisa diberikan kortikosteroid (hydrocortisone) selama 2-4 hari untuk mengurangi peradangan yang hebat dan 20 cc (ml) convalescent gamma globulin.
  8. Bila anda ingin mencoba pengobatan alami bisa dengan madu-propolis, Habbatussauda atau Jintan Hitam (Nigella sativa), dsb. Selengkapnya mengenai khasiat obat tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
Pencegahan penyakit gondongan (mumps) :
  1. Melakukan vaksinasi untuk anak usia 12 bulan dan 4 tahun yang biasanya dalam bentuk kombinasi dengan campak dan rubela (vaksinasi MMR = Mumps, Measles, Rubella). Vaksinasi ini juga boleh diberikan untuk pria yang belum pernah menderita gondongan. Vaksin MMR diberikan secara teratur pada usia 12-18 bulan dan 4-6 tahun atau untuk anak umur 11-12 tahun (jika belum mendapatkan vaksinasi MMR sama sekali). Kekebalan terhadap virus juga bisa timbul setelah penderita mengalami penyakit gondongan dan umumnya kekebalan terhadap virus Mumpd akan bertahan seumur hidup.
  2. Penderita dianjurkan untuk memakai masker karena virus bisa menular melalui droplet atau percikan air liur saat batuk atau bersin. Begitu juga sebaliknya, bila diketahui terjadi penyebaran penyakit gondongan di sekolah, tempat bermain, dsb maka sebaiknya anak tidak keluar rumah atau bila sangat terpaksa harus keluar rumah, maka gunakan masker untuk mencegah penularan virus.
  3. Senantiasa menjaga kebugaran tubuh, mengkonsumsi air putih minimal 8 gelas atau 2000 ml per hari, mengkonsumsi makanan bergizi, sayuran, buah-buahan, minum multivitamin atau suplemen untuk meningkatkan dan menjaga daya tahan tubuh agar tetap fit sehingga tidak mudah terserang virus.

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