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17 Cara Cepat dan Paling Efektif Pertolongan Pertama dalam Penanganan serta Pencegahan Serangan Jantung

Jantung (cor atau cardia) merupakan organ tubuh manusia yang berperan penting dalam sistem peredaran darah. Darah berperan mengangkut nutrisi dan oksigen untuk didistribusikan ke seluruh tubuh. Jantung terletak dalam rongga dada agak sebelah kiri, di antara paru-paru kanan dan paru-paru kiri. Jantung bekerja laksana pompa air yakni memompa aliran darah ke seluruh pembuluh darah yang ada dalam tubuh kita. Bila diperhatikan secara lebih teliti lagi, sebenarnya jantung terdiri atas 2 pompa yakni pompa sebelah kiri dan pompa sebelah kanan yang tidak tersambung. Kedua pompa tersebut disekat oleh lapisan otot yang bekerja secara sinergi. Masing-masing pompa pada jantung terdiri atas 2 rongga yakni serambi (atrium) dan bilik (ventrikel) yang dipisahkan oleh dinding. Atrium kiri dan kanan dipisahkan oleh sekat yang disebut septum atriorum. Sedangkan ventrikel kiri dan kanan dipisahkan oleh sekat yang disebut septum interventrakularis. Dinding ventrikel lebih tebal daripada dinding atrium, karena ventrikel harus bekerja lebih kuat untuk memompa darah ke semua organ tubuh. Bila dibandingkan dinding ventrikel kiri dan kanan, maka terlihat dinding ventrikel kiri lebih tebal daripada ventrikel kanan, karena ventrikel kiri harus bekerja lebih kuat memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh. Sedangkan, ventrikel kanan hanya memompa darah ke paru-paru.

Selain itu, pada masing-masing belahan jantung, antara serambi dan bilik dihubungkan oleh sebuah katup. Katup yang menghubungkan serambi kanan dan bilik kanan disebut katup trikuspidalis (katup berdaun tiga), sementara katup yang menghubungkan serambi kiri dan bilik kiri disebut katupmitralis atau katup bikuspidalis (katup berdaun dua). Kesimpulannya, jantung terdiri dari 4 rongga, yaitu serambi kanan (atrium dexter) - bilik kanan (ventrikel dexter) dan serambi kiri (antrium sinister) - bilik kiri (ventrikel sinister).

Agar jantung berfungsi sebagai pemompa, otot-otot jantung, atrium dan ventrikal harus berkontraksi secara bergantian. Kontraksi otot jantung atau kerja pompa ini dikendalikan secara alami oleh suatu pengatur irama (nodus sinotrialis), terletak di dalam dinding serambi kanan yang juga dikendalikan oleh sistem syaraf otonom(bekerja di luar keinginan kita). Impuls listrik yang dihasilkan dari nodus sinotrialis (normalnya sekitar 60-72 impuls per menit ) yang akan ditransmisikan kepada kedua serambi tersebut akan membuat keduanya berkontraksi secara serentak. Impuls listrik juga akan diteruskan kepadadinding-dinding bilik, sehingga membuat jantung berdenyut (berkontraksi),menghasilkan kontraksi-kontraksi otot jantung beirama yang disebut denyut jantung. Dengan adanya denyut jantung secara berirama dan berulang-ulang inilah, maka darah bisa mengalir lewat pembuluh darah ke seluruh tubuh.

Prinsip kerja jantung selengkapnya, sebagai berikut :
  1. Saat jantung berdenyut, ruang jantung mengendur (relaksasi) sekitar 0.5 detik sehingga terisi darah, yang disebut diastole (diastol), lalu jantung berkontraksi dan memompa darah keluar dari ruang jantung melalui bilik-bilik yang berkontraksi secara serentak yang disebut systole (sistol).
  2. Kedua serambi (serambi kanan dan serambi kiri) akan mengendur dan berkontraksi secara bersamaan, begitu juga kedua bilik (bilik kanan dan bilik kiri), akan mengendur dan berkontraksi secara bersamaan.
  3. Darah kotor yang mengandung karbondioksida (CO2) dari seluruh tubuh akan masuk ke jantung melalui 2 vena berbesar (vena kava) menuju ke dalam serambi (atrium) kanan. Setelah atrium kanan terisi darah, ia akan mendorong darah ke dalam bilik (ventrikel) kanan melalui katup berdaun tiga (trikuspidalis). Darah dari bilik (ventrikel) kanan akan dipompa melalui katup pulmoner ke dalam arteri pulmonalis yang menuju ke paru-paru (kontraksi ventrikel akan menutup katup trikuspidalis, tetapi membuka katup pulmoner yang terletak pada lubang masuk arteri pulmonalis).
  4. Darah akan mengalir melalui pembuluh yang sangat kecil (pembuluh kapiler) yang mengelilingi kantong udara di paru-paru kiri dan kanan, menyerap oksigen, dan melepaskan karbondioksida serta selanjutnya darah yang kaya akan oksigen dialirkan kembali ke jantung melalui 4 vena pulmonalis (2 vena dari setiap paru-paru) menuju serambi (atrium) kiri. Peredaran darah di antara bagian kanan jantung, paru-paru dan atrium kiri disebut sirkulasi pulmoner karena darah dialirkan ke paru-paru atau disebut juga peredaran darah kecil.
  5. Darah yang kaya akan oksigen tersebut mengalir di dalam vena pulmonalis menuju ke serambi (atrium) kiri. Darah dalam serambi (atrium) kiri akan didorong menuju bilik (ventrikel) kiri melalui katup (vulvula) berdaun dua (katup bikuspidalis/ katup mitral), Kontraksi ventrikel akan menutup katup bikuspidalis dan membuka katup aorta yang berbentuk bulan sabit (vulvula semilunaris). pada lubang masuk ke aorta yang selanjutnya akan memompa darah bersih ini melewati katup aorta masuk ke dalam aorta (arteri terbesar dalam tubuh) yang akan mengedarkan darah kaya oksigen ke seluruh tubuh (kecuali paru-paru). Darah yang beredar ke seluruh tubuh dan miskin oksigen akan diangkut dari jaringan tubuh oleh pembuluh vena ke jantung (atrium kanan) kembali. Peredaran darah ini disebut peredaran darah besar
  6. Pada aorta tepatnya di dekat katup aorta juga terdapat cabang pertama berupa 2 lubang menuju ke arteri-arteri koroner kanan dan kiri. Arteri koroner merupakan pembuluh darah yang memberi makan sel-sel jantung. Arteri ini menuju arteriol yang memberikan darah ke pembuluh kapiler yang menembus seluruh bagian jantung, selanjutnya darah diangkut oleh venul menuju ke vena koroner yang bermuara ke atrium kanan. Sistem sirkulasi bagian ini disebut sistem koroner.
Mengingat fungsinya yang sangat penting, jantung perlu dijaga agar dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Agar tetap sehat, jantung membutuhkan oksigen dan zat gizi yang dibawa oleh darah melalui arteri (pembuluh darah) koroner, yang terdapat pada jantung. Kelainan atau gangguan pada jantung dapat beresiko kematian. Masalah pada jantung yang sering ditemukan adalahkegagalan organ jantung yaitu berupa penyakit jantung dan serangan jantung.

Penyakit jantung adalah suatu kondisi yang menyebabkan jantung tidak dapat melaksanakan fungsinya dengan baik (kelainan bawaan lahir), gejala penderita seperti : biru pada bibir, kuku jari tangan-kaki, biru akan terlihat semakin jelas bila melakukan aktivitas fisik. Beberapa penyakit kelainan bawaan pada jantung, antara lain :
  1. Lemahnya otot jantung, menyebabkan penderita mengalami keterbatasan dalam melakukan aktivitas secara berlebihan karena dapat menimbulkan rasa sakit pada bagian dada, menyebabkan tubuh terlihat kebiru-biruan, dan mudah pingsan.
  2. Terdapat celah antara serambi kanan dan serambi kiri bahkan terkadang hanya memiliki sebuah serambi, karena tidak sempurnanya pembentukan lapisan pemisah keduanya saat di dalam kandungan. Akibatnya darah bersih dan darah kotor akan bercampur, sehingga penderita tidak dapat melakukan aktivitas yang berat, karena akan membuat tubuh membiru, sesak napas, meski adakalanya tidak menyebabkan nyeri pada dada.
Sementara serangan jantung (gagal jantung) atau infark miokardial (myocardial infarction) atau acute myocardial infarction adalah kondisi terhentinya pasokan aliran darah menuju sel jantungsecara mendadak (meskipun hanya sesaat) yang menyebabkansebagian otot jantung (myocardium) menjadi mati (mengalami kerusakan) dan jantung sama sekali tidak berfungsi. Apabila pasokan darah ke jantung terhenti sama sekali, maka sel-sel jantung akan mengalami perubahan yang permanen, dan hanya dalam beberapa jam saja bagian otot jantung tersebut akanmengalami penurunan mutu atau kerusakansecara permanen dan mati (infarc). Berikut beberapa penyebab serangan jantung secara umum, antara lain :
  1. Terhambatnya aliran (supply) darah ke otot-otot jantung, akibat tersumbat atau mengerasnya (kaku) pembuluh darah kecil (ischemia) yang biasanya mengalirkan darah ke otot-otot jantung sehingga darah tidak dapat mengalir. Penyebabnya karena penyakit diabetes (penanganan penyakit diabetes dapat anda baca pada artikel disini), lemak, kolesterol, obesitas, narkoba, dan zat kimia dari obat-obatan yang mengandung phenol propano alanin (PPA) secara berlebihan misalnya obat flu, nikotin (rokok), dsb.
  2. Penyumbatan koroner, yakni penyumbatan beberapa sesaat pembuluh darah koroner akibat penggumpalan darah, penyempitan (mengencangnya) pembuluh koroner, dsb yang menyebabkan pasokan darah ke otot jantung menjadi berkurang secara mendadak sehingga menimbulkan rasa sakit luar biasa. Penyempitan pembuluh darah bisa akibat penumpukan kolesterol, protein lain dari asupan makanan (terutama makanan cepat saji, junk food, makanan yang digoreng, makanan yang banyak garam/sodium, daging, dsb), yang terjadi pada dinding arteri dan menyebabkan pembuluh darah koroner menjadi kaku (aterosklerosis). Plak atau timbunan lemak pada dinding-dinding arteri akan mengeras dan mempersempit arteri sehingga menghambat aliran darah ke jantung. Penyakit arteria koroner atau Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) atau Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) inilah yang menyebabkan sebagian besar serangan jantung secara tiba-tiba dikarenakan jantung meminta oksigen melebihi yang tersedia. Bila otot jantung tidak juga menerima oksigen dalam waktu yang cukup lama, maka jaringan di sekitarnya dapat rusak dan seyogianya otot jantung tidak mengalami regenerasi. Jadi semakin lama serangannya, semakin banyak kerusakan pada otot jantung, dan semakin besar kemungkinan besar resiko korban meninggal dunia.
  3. Aritmia jantung (disaritmia) atau gangguan irama detak jantung yang abnormal yakni jantung berdenyut secara tidak teratur, bisa terlalu cepat atau terlalu lambat. Penyebabnya karena adanya gangguan pada sistem impuls listrik pada jantung akibat penyumbatan koroner, gangguan katup jantung dan faktor umur (penuaan).
  4. Melakukan aktivitas yang memaksa jantung bekerja melebihi ambang batas, melakukan aktivitas olahraga tanpa pemanasan terlebih dahulu.
Berdasarkan kenyataan, terdapat jutaan orang di seluruh dunia yang mengalami serangan jantung dan berakhir dengan kematian. Mereka yang memiliki orang tua atau keluarga dengan riwayat mengalami serangan jantung, maka akan memiliki risiko lebih besar menderita penyakit ini. Berikut adalah beberapa gejala atau tanda-tanda akan terjadinya serangan jantung :
  1. Nyeri, keringat dingin, kaki terasa sakit (kram atau kejang) karena otot tidak mendapatkan cukup darah yang mengandung oksigen (ischemia).
  2. Angina, sesak atau nyeri pada dada seperti tertimpa beban, terjepit, diperas-peras, dan terbakar, menjalar ke lengan kiri, leher punggung (bila sudah parah) karena otot jantung tidak mendapatkan darah yang cukup.
  3. Sesak napas dan merasa sangat lelah sewaktu menjalankan aktivitas sehari-hari, karena jantung tidak efektif memompa darah sehingga aliran darah ke otot menjadi berkurang dan penderita merasa sangat lemah dan lelah.
  4. Pusing, rasa kurang nyaman pada perut, mual, muntah, bahkan pingsan, akibat aliran darah menurun, bahkan menyebabkan denyut (irama jantung) tidak normal sehingga kemampuan jatung memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh juga menjadi berkurang
  5. Gangguan tidur karena merasa cemas berlebihan, dan jantung berdebar-debar (Palpitasi)
  6. Pada balita dan anak-anak, selain gejala diatas, terdapat juga beberapa tanda khusus terjadinya serangan jantung, antara lain :
    • Ketidakmampuan mengisap susu dengan baik akibat kegagalan fungsi jantung.
    • Cepat lelah, nafas seperti terburu-buru, berkeringat
    • Tidak sanggup berjalan jauh, berlari, sesak nafas saat aktivitas fisik seperti olah raga
    • Tiba-tiba terlihat bertambah biru, gelisah, pernafasan cepat,
    • Tubuh lemas, kesadaran menurun dan kadang disertai kejang
    • Menangis kuat dan lama, demam, dehidrasi, kelelahan ataupun kedinginan
    • Sering terserang infeksi saluran pernafasan
    • Berat badan tidak naik (lambat naik), kurang gizi, daya tahan tubuh rendah
Bila anda menemukan seseorang baik keluarga, atau siapa saja sedang mengalami serangan jantung, jangan buru-buru panik. Coba lakukan langkah penting untuk menolong dan menyelamatkan jiwanya sebelum bantuan medis atau ambulans datang. Yuk, simak 17 Cara cepat dan paling efektif pertolongan pertama dalam penanganan serta pencegahan serangan jantung.

Menangani serangan jantung :
  1. Jika suatu ketika anda menemukan seseorang tergeletak tak sadarkan diri, coba berikan rangsangan dengan cara memegang, mengguncang, atau mencubit bagian tubuh orang tersebut, bila tetap tidak sadarkan diri, kemungkinan besar korban mengalami serangan jantung mendadak. Segera panggil bantuan ambulans dengan menghubungi nomor telepon darurat (emergency) 118 atau 119.
  2. Lakukan pertolongan pertama dengan men-check napas dan denyut nadi. Jika napas dan denyut nadi tidak ada, lakukan CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) yakni kombinasi pertolongan dengan penekanan pada dada, pemberian jalan napas, dan pemberian bantuan pernapasan (napas buatan). Tujuannya menjaga agar darah yang mengandung oksigen dapat mengalir ke otak dan organ penting lainnya sambil menunggu penanganan medis selanjutnya. Berikut ini langkah-langkahnya :
    • Baringkan korban pada tempat yang datar dan keras, lalu lakukan penekanan (compression) pada area tengah dada korban secara kencang dan cepat, sekitar 100 kali per menit, dengan ke dalaman tekanan sekitar 5 centimeter.
    • Berikan jalan napas dengan mengangkat kepala pasien sampai mengarah ke belakang, dan angkat dagunya untuk membuka jalan napas. Pemberian jalan napas dilakukan setelah penekanan dilakukan dalam hitungan ke-30..
    • Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan memberikan napas buatan dalam 1 detik, sesuai dengan volume udara yang dihirup atau dikeluarkan saat bernapas secara normal. Napas buatan bisa melalui mulut ke mulut, mulut ke hidung, mulut ke sungkup atau menggunakan kantung pernapasan (masker oksigen)
  1. Bila korban masih sadar, dudukan atau letakkan pada posisi yang nyaman dengan bersandar untuk menyangga berat tubuhnya. Segera melonggarkan semua pakaiannya agar dapat bernapas lega. Biarkan sekitar 5 menit untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri pada dada.
  2. Jika korban memiliki riwayat penyakit jantung koroner dan setelah 5 menit rasa nyeri di dada tetap tidak hilang, segera berikan nitrogliserin maksimal 3 kali selama 3-5 menit, atau berikan aspirin kunyah dengan dosis 160-320 mg (biasanya dokter menganjurkan membawa obat-obatan ini bagi penderita jantung koroner). Selanjutnya segera menghubungi ambulans dengan menelepon nomor 118 atau 119.
  3. Minta korban untuk menarik napas dalam-dalam kemudian berusaha batuk dengan sekuat–kuatnya (seperti saat mengeluarkan dahak). Setiap interval 2 detik, tarik napas sekali dan batuk kembali, lakukan sampai merasa denyut jantung sudah normal atau pertolongan tiba. Tujuan menarik napas dalam-dalam adalah untuk memudahkan oksigen masuk ke dalam paru-paru. Sementara tujuan batuk adalah untuk menekan jantung agar sirkulasi aliran darah kembali normal. Menekan jantung dengan cara batuk akan membantu menormalkan kembali denyut jantung.
  4. Segera bawa korban ke rumah sakit untuk mendapatkan penanganan, dokter akan melakukan pemeriksaan dan mengambil langkah seperti bedah arteri koroner (tindakan operasi pada pembuluh darah jantung koroner atau biasa disebut operasi bypass yakni memintas arteri koroner yang tersumbat), keteterisasi (melebarkan pembuluh darah koroner yang menyempit atau tersumbat yang diikuti dengan pemasangan cincin (stent) pada pembuluh darah koroner) atau menanam alat pacu untuk membantu mengatur kembali detak jantung (pada kasus gangguan irama jantung).
  5. Bila anda ingin menggunakan obat tradisional sesuai ajaran Islam untuk mengatasi dan mengantisipasi serangan jantung kembali, bisa dengan mengkonsumsi madu-propolis,habbatussauda, jahe, minyak zaitun, dan delima. Khasiat obat-obat tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini.
Untuk mencegah serangan jantung dan menjaga agar kondisi jantung tetap sehat, diperlukan kehati-hatian dalam menjaga pola makan serta gaya hidup. Berikut ini adalah tindakan pencegahan serangan jantung, yakni :
  1. Melakukan aktivitas olahraga yang baik bagi jantung secara teratur dan tidak berlebihan (sekitar 30 menit setiap hari) , seperti :
    • Jalan cepat di pagi hari, yang berguna untuk menjaga detak jantung tetap normal, menurunkan risiko serangan jantung, menurunkan tingkat kolesterol buruk, meningkatkan kolesterol yang baik, menurunkan tekanan darah, menjaga berat badan, dan meningkatkan semangat dalam beraktivitas.
    • Aerobic, membuat jantung memompa darah lebih efisien, membantu otot jantung menjadi semakin kuat dan sehat.
    • Berlari, berguna untuk mengurangi jumlah lemak yang ada di sekitar jantung dan pembuluh darah.
    • Bersepeda, berguna untuk menjaga jantung, pembuluh darah, dan paru-paru agar tetap sehat, menurunkan risiko stroke, serangan jantung, dsb
    • Berenang, menjaga detak jantung tetap normal, melatih pernapasan, melancarkan sirkulasi darah, menjaga tekanan darah, dsb.
    • Jenis dan manfaat olah raga lainnya dapat anda baca pada artikel disini

  1. Hindari mengkonsumsi makanan mengandung banyak lemak, makanan yang digoreng, atau kolesterol tinggi (seperti seafood), sebaiknya mengkonsumsi makanan dengan cara direbus, dikukus, dipanggang, dan makanan rendah lemak seperti susu, keju, mentega, dsb. Andaipun ingin menggoreng makanan, sebaiknya pakai minyak zaitun yang memiliki kandungan lemak sangat rendah
  2. Hindari mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung gula tinggi seperti soft drink (minuman ringan) dan mengkonsumsi karbohidrat dalam jumlah banyak, karena karbohidrat akan dipecah oleh tubuh menjadi lemak. Sebaiknya, mengkonsumsi gandum atau oat yang ramah bagi jantung.
  3. Jangan merokok, mengkonsumsi minuman beralkohol, narkoba, dan sejenisnya karena dapat membahayakan kesehatan jantung dan meningkatkan resiko serangan jantung.
  4. Menjaga tubuh agar tidak kelebihan berat badan (obesitas), karena akan menyebabkan tekanan darah tinggi (hipertensi) yang berpotensi menyebabkan penyakit diabetes, jantung corener, dan resiko serangan jantung. Untuk mengatasi obesitas, dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
  5. Mengkonsumsi makanan mengandung serat seperti sayuran dan buah-buahan sebagai antioksidan untuk membuang zat radikal bebas akibat polusi udara (asap kendaraan, asap rokok, debu, dsb) yang sering menimbulkan endapan dan penyumbatan pada pembuluh darah, sehingga jantung bekerja ekstra untuk memompa darah.
  6. Hindari stres, karena ketika stres tubuh akan memproduksi hormone norepinephrine yang mengakibatkan tekanan darah naik, dan tubuhnya akan mengeluarkan hormon cortisol yang menyebabkan pembuluh darah menjadi kaku dan jantung menjadi terganggu. Untuk meredakan stres, bisa berolahraga, istirahat, menarik napas panjang, meditasi (yoga), bermain game, mendengarkan music, tertawa, dsb.
  7. Istirahat (tidur) yang cukup, tidak tidur larut malam dan sering bangun lebih pagi akan membuat jantung lebih sehat
  8. Mengkonsumsi makanan yang baik bagi kesehatan jantung, seperti Ikan salmon (mengandung asam lemak omega-3 dan antioksidan), gandum atau oatmeal (mengandung serat larut, folat, dan potassium), walnut dan almond (mengandung asam lemak omega-3, vitamin E, magnesium, folat, dan serat), Kacang merah (mengandung asam lemak omega-3 dan serat), Bluberi (mengandung antioksidan poten resveratrol), teh hijau (mengandung resveratrol dan katekin sebagai antioksidan, mencegah pembentukan plak di pembuluh darah), tomat (mengandung likopen, karotenoid, untuk menurunkan risiko stroke, selengkapnya bisa anda baca pada artikel disini), bawang putih (zat allicin menjaga kesehatan jantung), minyak zaitun, apel, habatussauda, vitamin C, dan obat herbal lainnya
  9. Mengurangi konsumsi garam akan mengurangi risiko serangan jantung, mencegah tekanan darah tinggi yang sering dianggap pembunuh diam-diam. Tekanan darah tinggi akan memberikan beban sangat berlebihan kepada jantung dan arteri hingga akhirnya dapat mengundang serangan jantung dan stroke.

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