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15 Cara Paling Cepat dan Mujarab Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Paru-paru Basah (Pneumonia)

Pernahkah anda mendengar istilah penyakit paru-paru basah ? Istilah ini sepertinya lebih terkenal di masyarakat kita untuk menyebut penyakit yang menyebabkan infeksi atau peradangan (inflamasi) yang terjadi pada organ paru-paru. Penyakit ini di dalam ilmu kedokteran dikenal dengan istilah pneumonia. Penyebab pastinya karena infeksi bakteri, virus, jamur, parasit yang memasuki paru-paru, lalu menetap pada kantung udara mikroskopik yang dikenal dengan nama alveolus, serta bagian-bagian dari paru-paru, yang selanjutnya mereka berkembang biak secara pesat. Tapi tunggu dulu, sistim kekebalan tubuh tidak tinggal diam dan merespon serta berusaha melawan infeksi dengan membuat gumpalan cairan pada ruang yang mengelilingi paru-paru, sehingga dengan cepat aveoli paru-paru akan terisi cairanterinfeksi yang mengandung beberapa jenis bakteridan nanah (sel-sel yang meradang) atau biasa disebut dengan abses paru-paru. Akibatnya alveolus akan menjadi sedikit kerassehingga tidak bisa bekerja optimal dan berakibat proses oksigenasi (proses mengisi udara di paru-paru) menjadi terganggu. Dalam kondisi ini penderita mulai mengalamikesulitan untuk mengekstraksi oksigen (sulit bernapas) karena paru-paru terhambat oleh cairandan volumeoksigen yang masuk ke paru-paru menjadi sangat terbatas. Efeknyakulit akan membiru (sianosis) akibat darah yang kekurangan oksigen.Jadi tidak salah juga jika masyarakat kita menyebutnya dengan istilah penyakit paru-paru basah.
Penyakit pneumonia atau paru-paru basah ini lebih sering terjadi di negara-negara berkembang seperti Indonesia daripada di negara maju. Golongan yang memiliki resiko terserang pneumonia adalah mereka yang berusia diatasi 65 tahun, balita yang berusia dibawah 2 tahun, dan mereka yang memiliki kondisi kesehatan buruk seperti peminum alkohol, perokok berat, penderita diabetes, penderita gagal jantung, penderita penyakit paru obstruktif yang menahun, penderita yang mengalami gangguan sistem kekebalan tubuh tertentu (penderita kanker, penerima organ cangkokan, penderita HIV/AIDS), dsb. Celakanya, sebagian besar orang menganggap bahwa penyakit ini biasa saja karena gejala-gejalanya memang terjadi secara tak terduga. Padahal bila tidak segera ditangani, bisa menimbulkan resiko kerusakan pada organ paru-paru yang membahayakan jiwa si penderita. Apalagi bila penderita adalah anak-anak yangberusia di bawah 2 tahun. Solusinya, penderita anak-anak sebaiknya segera dirujuk ke rumah sakit karena sangat berisiko tinggi berkembang menjadi penyakit berat yang bisa menyebabkan kematian.
Secara umum peradangan yang terjadi pada paru-paru akibat penyakit pneumonia ini bisa disebabkan oleh beberapa hal, antara lain :
  1. Bakteri, yakni melalui pernapasan (melalui batuk atau bersin si penderita) dan terhirup masuk kepada orang yang sehat, lalu menyebabkan infeksi pada paru-paru. Beberapa jenis bakteri yang umumnya menyebabkan pneumonia seperti Streptococcus pneumonia (penyebab paling umum), Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella pneumophila, Hemophilus influenza, Chlamydophila pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Moraxella catarrhalis, dan Basilus gram-negatif. Pneumonia yang disebabkan oleh Streptococcus ditandai dengan sputum (lendir) yang berwarna seperti karat. Bila disebabkan oleh Legionella, biasanya disertai nyeri perut, diare, atau kebingungan. Atau bila disebabkan oleh bakteri gram-negatif, biasanya bersamaan dengan  bronkitis akut. Sementara pneumonia yang disebabkan mycoplasma, umumnya diikuti dengan pembengkakan nodus limfa di leher, nyeri sendi, atau infeksi telinga tengah
  2. Virus, beberapa jenis virus yang menyebabkan pneumonia seperti virus SARS (coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, dan parainfluenza). rhinovirus, , virus influenza A, virus influenza B, virus sinsitium pernapasan (RSV), dsb. Pneumonia yang disebabkan oleh virus biasanya muncul disertai mengi (seperti sesak napas atau bengek).
  3. Jamur, pneumonia akibat infeksi jamur jarang ditemukan namun seandainya pun terjadi biasanya disebabkan oleh Histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci, dan Coccidioides immitis.
  4. Parasit yang memengaruhi fungsi paru-paru, seperti : Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides, dan Plasmodium malariae. Parasit biasanya memasuki tubuh melalui kontak langsung dengan kulit, pencernaan, atau melalui vektor serangga (nyamuk). Parasit ini tidak secara khusus menginfeksi paru-paru melainkan melibatkan paru-paru sebagai tempat sekunder.
Secara umum pneumonia sebagian besar disebabkan oleh bakteri dan hanya sebagian kecil disebabkan oleh virus. Pneumonia pada balita (usia 2-3 tahun) sebagian besar terjadi saat daya tahan tubuh anak sedang menurun dan terjadi infeksi saluran pernapasan atas (ISPA) kemudian berpindah ke saluran pernapasan bawah.Bakteri yang menginfeksi diduga kuat adalah Haemophilus influenza tipe b (Hib), Staphylococcus aureus dan Streptococcus pneumonia. Pada anak-anak usia diatas 6 tahun pneumonia lebih sering disebabkan oleh bakteri Mycoplasma pneumonia. Sementara pada orang dewasa, pneumonia lebih sering disebabkan oleh bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), dimana bakteri ini bisa menyebabkan meningitis akut (infeksi pada selaput yang menutupi otak).
Beberapa tanda atau gejala penyakit pneumonia (paru-paru basah), antara lain :
  1. Biasanya berawal dari gejala influenza seperti demam, batuk, pilek, dan sakit kepala. Gejala pada anak balita yaitu demam, batuk, dan napas yang cepat atau sulit. Namun khusus anak balita berusia kurang dari 2 bulan, batuk malahan sering tidak muncul yang ada hanya suara merintih (grunting)
  2. Batuk yang berkepanjangan (batuk yang tidak berhenti) dan sering mengeluarkan lendir berwarna kehijauan, kuning, bahkan berdarah.
  3. Demam ringan atau tinggi (menggigil atau bergetar) dan penurunan tingkat kesadaran
  4. Nyeri di bagian dada dan mengalami kesulitan ketika bernapas (sesak napas) terutama ketika menarik napas dalam-dalam (nyeri pleuritik atau pleuritis). Bila pemeriksaan dilakukan menggunakan stetoskop, akan terdengar suara ronki (crackles).
  5. Nafsu makan berkurang, mual, muntah dan kelelahan (tidak enak badan) dan berat badan menurun
  6. Berkeringat secara berebihan, kulit lembab (keringat dingin) terutama pada tangan dan bila kaki disentuh akan terasa dingin
  7. Bagian kuku akan terlihat berwarna putih (leukonikia)
Bila anda atau keluarga mengalami penyakit paru-paru basah (pneumonia) jangan khawatir, yuk simak saja 15 Cara paling cepat dan mujarab mengobati serta mencegah penyakit paru-paru basah (pneumonia), berikut ini :
Pengobatan pneumonia :
  1. Sebaiknya beristirahat dan banyak minum air putih (minimal 2000 ml atau 8 gelas perhari) atau cairan lain dengan cara mengkonsumsi jus buah-buahan (apel, jeruk, melon, dsb). Bisa juga dengan minum teh hangat untuk membantu melonggarkan lendir dan membuat saluran udara menjadi lapang (lega).
  2. Pneumonia atau paru-paru basah yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, bisa diobati secara efektif dengan minum antibiotic. Untuk anak-anak dengan gejala ringan atau sedang, bisa dengan minum syrup obat cefadroxil (produksi Indofarma), promedex sirup (produksi Interbat), Cosyr sirup (produksi medifarma), obat amoxicillin (misal Claneksi Forte). Sementara untuk orang dewasa sebaiknya dengan minum antibiotic doxycyline (misal merk Dumoxin produksi PT Actavis) atau Chlarithromysin (misal merk Bicrolid produksi Sanbe, Abbotic XL produksi Abbot). Pemberian antibiotik secara tepat dan teratur, bisa menyembuhkan penderita (terutama anak-anak) secara total dalam waktu sekitar 1-2 minggu (tergantung imunitasnya) karena kebanyakan jenis pneumonia bakteri akan stabil dalam waktu sekitar 3–6 hari. Jika dilakukan pemeriksaan dengan rontgen sekitar 1 bulan kemudian, biasanya paru-paru sudah terlihat bersih. Pengecualian, untuk golongan lanjut usia atau mereka yang memiliki masalah kesehatan karena komplikasi penyakit lainnya, penyembuhan biasanya memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama (sekitar 3 bulan).
  3. Jika penderita pneumonia mengalami demam dan terasa nyeri, maka bisa menggunakan syrup paracetamol (misal merk tempra, sanmol, termorex) atau syrup ibuprofen (misal merk proris, brufen) untuk meredakan demam atau nyeri tersebut. Bila anak anda mengalami muntah akibat batuk, maka sebaiknya tunggu beberapa menit sebelum memberikan makan/minum/obat kepadanya.
  4. Bila anda termasuk orang yang punya kebiasaan merokok dan ingin penyakit pneumonia-nya lekas sembuh, maka berhentilah merokok. Sama halnya bila anda gemar mengkonsumsi minuman beralkohol maka segera hentikan kebiasaan tersebut atau penyakit pneumonia anda akan semakin parah.
  5. Untuk membantu melonggarkan lendir pada saluran pernapasan, coba lakukan hal berikut : rendam kain lap (sapu tangan) pada air hangat, peras dan biarkan sedikit hangat. Tutup hidung dan mulut dengan kain tersebut. Tuangkan air hangat pada mangkuk dan hirup kabut hangatnya. Coba tarik napas dalam-dalam untuk membantu membuka paru-paru. Lakukan hal ini 2 – 3 kali setiap jam. Tekan bagian dada dengan lembut beberapa kali sehari dan tidur dengan kepala lebih rendah dari dada. Tujuanya untuk membantu memunculkan lendir dari paru-paru sehingga membuat kita batuk. Nah, ketika batuk itulah akan terjadi proses membersihkan saluran udara dari lendir.
  6. Jika anda menyukai pengobatan secara alami apalagi sesuai ajaran Islam, bisa dengan mengkonsumsi madu-propolis, habbatussauda, jahe, dan delima. Ulasan selengkapnya mengenai hal tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini.
  7. Jika berbagai penanganan sesuai tips diatas telah dilakukan, namun gejala paru-paru basah atau pneumonia tetap tidak mengalami kemajuan yang ditandai dengan salah satu atau lebih tanda atau gejala seperti : batuk berdarah, lendir berwarna karat atau berwarna gelap, breathing (pernapasan) yang lebih buruk yakni nyeri dada yang semakin sakit ketika batuk atau bernafas, sulit bernapas (sesak napas), berkeringat di malam hari, berat badan terus menurun, menggigil, atau demam terus menerus, ujung jari, kulit di sekitar kuku, gusi atau bibir membiru, dsb, maka penderita sebaiknya segera dibawa ke pusat pelayanan kesehatan atau rumah sakit untuk mendapatkan penanganan yang tepat.
Pencegahan pneumonia :
  1. Selalu mencuci tangan dengan sabun terutama sebelum makan, setelah membuang lendir (ingus), mengganti popok bayi, sehabis buang air, dsb yang bertujuan untuk mencegah penularan bakteri, virus, jamur, dll yang menyebabkan pneumonia.
  2. Pakai masker ketika anda melakukan aktifitas membersihkan perabotan atau peralatan yang berdebu atau berjamur.
  3. Melakukan olahraga secara teratur agar tubuh tetap sehat, bugar, dan metabolism tubuh (keringat) menjadi lancar. Mengenai 17 manfaat dan khasiat utama olahraga buat kesehatan selengkapnya dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
  4. Jika anda ibu menyusui, berikan ASI eksklusif selama 6 bulan pertama. ASI selain bermanfaat memberikan gizi, juga berguna untuk membangun sistim kekebalan tubuh alami pada bayi terhadap bakteri dan virus serta mengurangi risiko bayi terserang pneumonia atau penyakit lainnya
  5. Melakukan vaksinasi secara teratur seperti yang disarankan oleh dokter (1 tahun pertama pada bayi) untuk mencegah terjangkitnya penyakit pneumonia pada anak-anak dan orang dewasa yang beresiko tinggi, antara lain : vaksin pneumokokus (mencegah pneumonia karena Streptococcus pneumonia), vaksin flu, dan vaksin HIB (mencegah pneumonia karena Haemophilus influenzae tipe B).
  6. Memberikan makanan yang bergizi dan susu formula untuk anak usia balita
  7. Melakukan latihan bernapas dalam dan terapi untuk membuang dahak, dipercaya bisa membantu mencegah terjadinya pneumonia terutama pada mereka yang rentan terhadap pneumonia (lanjut usia dan orang yang mengalami masalah kesehatan).
  8. Jangan merokok, mengkonsumsi alcohol, dan obat-obatan terlarang (narkoba)

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