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19 Tips Ampuh dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Ginjal (Kidney Disease)

Pernahkah anda melihat bagaimana proses penjernihan atau penyaringan air dengan menggunakan alat penyaring atau biasa sehari-hari dikenal dengan sebutan filter air ? Filter air merupakan suatu alat yang berfungsi menyaring, menghilangkan zat pencemar, bakteri, kotoran, dsb pada air dengan menggunakan penghalang atau media, baik melalui proses secara fisika, kimia maupun biologi. Pada tubuh manusia pun terdapat proses penyaringan seperti ini yang dilakukan oleh organ tubuh yang disebut dengan ginjal.

Ginjal (Kidney) atau buah pinggang merupakan salah satu organ tubuh pada manusia yang memiliki peranan penting dalam sistim urine yang terhubung dengan arteri renal, vena renal, dan ureter. Setiap orang memiliki sepasang ginjal kiri-kanan, yang letaknya di belakang perut (abdomen) yakni di kiri-kanan tulang belakang dibawah hati dan limpa. Bila dilihat bentuknya, ginjal (buah pinggang) sepintas mirip seperti kacang dengan lekukan yang menghadap ke dalam. Pada sistim urine, ginjal memiliki peranan (fungsi) antara lain :
  1. Menyaring/membersihkan kotoran (limbah) dari darah, lalu membuangnya bersama air (urine).
  2. Mengatur dan mempertahankan keseimbangan pH plasma darah, konsentrasi ion mineral (hidronium dan hidroksil), serta komposisi air dalam darah agar darah tetap sehat. Bila terjadi kelebihan cairan, ion mineral, dari dalam darah akan dibuang melalui urine. Sehingga urine yang dihasilkan dapat bersifat asam (pH 5) atau alkalis/basa (pH 8)
  3. Membuat hormon erytropoiethin yang berfungsi sebagai penghasil sel darah merah di tulang untuk menjaga agar tulang kuat
  4. Memproses vitamin D sehingga dapat distimulasi oleh tulang
  5. Menyaring dan membuang racun yang mungkin terdapat dalam makanan yang dikonsumsi setiap harinya dan tercampur dalam darah.
  6. Menghasilkan enzim renin yang berfungsi mengatur serta mengendalikan tekanan darah dan elektrolisis. Dimana enzim renin berperan mengubah protein dalam darah yang menghasilkan hormon angiotensis untuk selanjutnya diubah menjadi aldosterone yang menghancurkan sodium dan air dalam darah.
Ginjal yang sehat akan berfungsi membersihkan darah dengan mengatur kelebihan cairan, mineral, dan limbah serta membuat hormon-hormon yang menjaga agar tulang tetap kuat dan darah tetap sehat. Bila ginjal gagal atau mengalami kerusakan, maka limbah berbahaya yang terdapat dalam darah tidak bisa dikeluarkan sehingga tekanan darah akan naik dan tubuh juga tidak dapat mengatur kelebihan cairan (idealnya sebanyak 750 ml sampai 1500 ml perhari cairan/air akan dibuang melalui ginjal) yang berakibat tidak bisa membuat cukup sel darah merah sehingga penderita akan beresiko mengalami penyakit jantung dan stroke. Berikut ini merupakan tahap/stadium kerusakan pada ginjal :
  • Stadium/tahap 1, yakni fungsi ginjal sedikit berkurang dan adanya kelainan saat dilakukan tes pada darah atau urine
  • Stadium/tahap 2, yakni adanya tanda-tanda awal kerusakan ginjal saat dilakukan tes pada darah atau urine.
  • Stadium/tahap 3, yakni terjadinya penurunan fungsi ginjal normal
  • Stadium/tahap 4, yakni kerusakan ginjal yang parah dan terjadi penurunan tajam fungsi ginjal setengah atau lebih dari fungsi ginjal normal, dan menimbulkan sejumlah komplikasi sehingga memerlukan terapi untuk menggantikan pekerjaan ginjal
  • Stadium akhir/tahap 5, yakni gagal ginjal kronis (Chronic Kidney Disease atau CKD) sehingga diperlukan terapi pengganti ginjal secara permanen (dialisis ataupun tranplantasi/cangkok ginjal)
Mengingat fungsinya yang sangat penting, maka bila terjadi kerusakan pada ginjal bisa berakibat fatal pada manusia. Beberapa penyebab utama rusaknya ginjal (buah pinggang) adalah :
  1. Supply darah ke ginjal berkurang akibat penyakit hipertensi (tekanan darah tinggi), infeksi, peradangan, diabetes mellitus (selengkapnya bisa dibaca pada artikel disini), kanker ginjal, kanker prostat (selengkapnya mengenai gejala kanker prostat bisa dibaca pada artikel disini), dsb
  2. Penyalahgunaan obat terlarang (narkoba), over dosis obat-obatan, alkohol, merokok, terminum racun, dsb.
  3. Gangguan urologis yang lazim terjadi di masyarakat dan dikenal dengan istilah batu ginjal (renal lithiasis). Terjadinya batu ginjal disebabkan adanya potongan/gumpalan kecil zat padat yang sering terbentuk dari kalsium, oksalat, dan fosfat yang larut dalam urine menjadi berkonsentrasi tinggi membentuk kristal dan menggumpal.
  4. Kebiasaan menahan buang air kecil terlalu lama,
  5. Kadar garam atau zat kimia dalam urine yang terlalu pekat atau kelebihan vitamin D.
Sebelum terjadinya kerusakan atau sakit pada ginjal, biasanya seseorang akan mengalami tanda atau gejala-gejala yang spesifik, antara lain :
  1. Tubuh terasa dingin, pusing, dan sulit berkonsentrasi,  
  2. Nyeri atau sakit pada pinggang yang sangat sampai tidak tertahankan, bengkak pada mata, wajah, tangan, kaki,
  3. Kesulitan saat buang air kecil yang ditandai dengan volume air seni menurun, terasa nyeri saat buang air kecil, perubahan warna air seni yakni sedikit merah atau keluar darah, dan sering terbangun di tengah malam hanya untuk buang air kecil
  4. Demam tinggi, mual, muntah, badan bengkak-bengkak, lemas tidak ada tenaga, nafsu makan berkurang, gatal, sesak nafas, wajah pucat atau anemia, kejang pada otot dan mudah memar.
  5. Rasa sakit di bagian sisi tubuh atau punggung, dibawah pinggul, perut bagian bawah, dan pangkal paha (selangkangan), dibawah tulang rusuk. Hal ini dirasakan bila seseorang menderita penyakit batu ginjal.
  6. Timbul ruam atau gatal secara terus-menerus pada kulit di bagian tubuh terutama badan.
Bila anda terdiagnosa mengalami gejala sakit ginjal (buah pinggang) jangan buru-buru panik dan khawatir, yuk simak saja 19 Tips Ampuh dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Ginjal (Kidney Disease), berikut ini :

Pengobatan :

Untuk mengobati penyakit pada ginjal bisa dengan cara :
  1. Bila anda mengalami batu ginjal, maka untuk mengeluarkan batu ginjal tersebut dengan cara minum banyak air putih minimal 2000 ml atau 8 gelas perhari. Batu ginjal ini umumnya tidak menyebabkan kerusakan permanen pada ginjal bila cepat dilakukan penanganan.
  2. Banyak istirahat dan melakukan olah raga ringan secara teratur misalnya senam, jalan pagi, jogging, dan hindari bekerja terlalu berat
  3. Konsumsi makanan yang mengandung protein tinggi untuk menjaga jaringan otot agar tetap kuat dan sehat serta memperbaiki jaringan yang rusak. Protein terdapat pada makanan seperti daging, seafood (ikan, udang, kerang, dsb), unggas (ayam, itik, bebek, dsb), telur, dsb
  4. Jangan mengkonsumsi minuman keras,merokok, obat-obat terlarang, karena akan membuat ginjal anda bekerja eksta untuk mengeluarkan racun tersebut dari dalam darah
  5. Mengkonsumsi buah-buahan seperti pepaya, mentimun, lobak, dan alpukat.
  6. Gunakan minyak nabati seperti minyak zaitun, minyak canola, dan minyak safflower sebagai sumber kalori yang baik, sehat, dan jangan gunakan mentega atau margarine karena bisa menyumbat pembuluh darah.
  7. Bila anda ingin mencoba pengobatan secara alami, dan sesuai ajaran agama Islam bisa dengan mengkonsumsi madu-propolis, habbatussauda, jahe, minyak zaitun, dan delima (selengkapnya mengenai hal tersebut dapat anda baca pada artikel disini)
  8. Sebenarnya seseorang bisa hidup normal dengan hanya satu ginjal saja bila salah satu ginjalmya tidak berfungsi (mengalami kerusakan). Namun, jika kedua ginjal tidak berfungsi atau mengalami gagal ginjal kronis (biasa disebut Chronic Kidney Disease atau CKD) yang berakibat ginjal tidak dapat menyaring darah secara normal, maka diperlukan langkah medis untuk menggantikan pekerjaan ginjal. Tindakan ini biasa dilakukan tim medis di klinik atau pusat kesehatan (rumah sakit), yakni dengan cara :
    • Hemodialisis (cuci darah), yakni membersihkan darah dengan menggunakan ginjal buatan. Pada hemodialisis, darah akan melalui filter eksternal untuk dibersihkan dan selanjutnya darah bersih dikembalikan lagi ke tubuh dengan tambahan garam dan cairan yang membantu mengontrol tekanan darah, menjaga keseimbangan mineral seperti kalium dan natrium dalam tubuh. Hemodialisis dilakukan melalui klinik kesehatan atau rumah sakit atau pusat dialisis dengan frekuensi 3 kali seminggu ( senin-rabu-jum’at atau selasa-kamis-sabtu).
    • Peritoneal dialisis (cuci rongga perut), yakni menggunakan selaput rongga perut (peritoneum) sebagai saringan antara darah dan cairan dianial
    • Transplantasi (cangkok ginjal), yakni berasal dari donor (biasanya anggota keluarga) baik yang masih hidup atau telah meninggal dunia. Ginjal dari donor yang masih hidup cenderung memiliki jangka hidup yang lebih panjang karena dapat di tes secara menyeluruh kecocokan donor (kecocokan golongan darah adalah faktor yang paling penting) sebelum dilakukan transplantasi
Pencegahan :
Untuk menjaga agar ginjal tetap sehat, maka bisa dilakukan hal berikut ini :
  1. Jangan terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi makanan seperti, jeroan (hati, usus, paru), emping, melinjo, cabe, dsb
  2. Hindari makanan yang mengandung karbohidrat tinggi seperti kentang, jagung, pasta dan ubi-ubian
  3. Jangan mengkonsumsi terlalu banyak minuman teh, kopi, minuman berenergi, dan sejenisnya apalagi secara rutin dan terus menerus, karena bisa menyebabkan gagal ginjal kronis (Chronic Kidney Disease atau CKD).
  4. Hindari kebiasan mengkonsumsi makanan seperti junk food (cepat saji) atau goreng-gorengan, karena bisa berpotensi menyebabkan penyakit gagal ginjal
  5. Untuk mengontrol kadar kalium dalam darah, jangan terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi buah seperti pisang, jeruk, apricot, pear, melon, kiwi, buah kering dan sayuran yang sangat tinggi kalium, seperti bayam, seledri, daun papaya, bunga kol dan buncis
  6. Jangan banyak mengkonsumsi makanan yang diawetkan seperti ikan asin, cornet, sarden, buah atau sayuran dalam kaleng, kismis, dsb.
  7. Kurangi mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung fosfor yang biasa ditemukan dalam makanan seperti susu dan keju, kacang-kacangan, tahu, tempe, selai kacang, dsb. Fosfor dalam darah akan mengambil kalsium yang terdapat pada tulang sehingga membuat tulang menjadi lemah dan mudah patah. Selain itu, terlalu banyak fosfor dapat membuat kulit menjadi gatal-gatal.
  8. Jangan mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung banyak garam dan sodium yang biasa terdapat pada makanan kaleng, kripik, dan makanan yang dibekukan. Sodium bisa membuat anda merasa kehausan sehingga minum lebih banyak cairan. Meski anda banyak minum air dan baik pada ginjal, namun disisi lain jantung harus bekerja lebih keras memompa cairan melalui tubuh sehingga menyebabkan tekanan darah menjadi tinggi dan mengakibatkan gagal jantung.
  9. Hindari kebiasaan menahan buang air kecil. Jika terasa ingin buang air kecil, maka segerakan dan jangan ditahan karena ini akan menyebabkan timbulnya penyakit gagal ginjal.
  10. Kontrol dan perhatikan berat badan anda agar tidak mengalami obesitas (kegemukan). Karena bila anda mengalami kegemukan, maka ginjal harus bekerja ekstra keras dalam menyaring darah saat proses metabolisme sesuai massa (berat) tubuh anda. Selengkapnya mengenai cara menangani dan mengobati obesitas dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
  11. Jika anda merasakan adanya kelaianan pada urine, maka segeralah memeriksakan diri ke dokter atau klinik kesehatan. Pemeriksaan darah dan urin juga bisa dilakukan secara berkala meskipun belum ada masalah atau tanda-tanda penyakit ginjal yang dirasakan. Karena bila ternyata dari hasil pemeriksaan terdeteksi gangguan pada ginjal, dan sudah terdeteksi lebih awal, maka dokter bisa segera melakukan tindakan pengobatan untuk mengurangi resiko kerusakan ginjal yang parah atau bahkan gagal ginjal.

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