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12 Cara Paling Cepat dan Jitu Mengobati serta Mencegah Osteoporosis (Tulang Keropos)

Belakangan ini muncul iklan baik di media cetak ataupun elektronik seperti televisi mengenai pentingnya menjaga kekuatan dan kepadatan tulang agar terhindar dari pengroposan tulang. Sebenarnya kepadatan tulang berkurang secara perlahan-lahan tanpa kita sadari seiring bertambahnya usia. Bila dibiarkan begitu saja maka beresiko menyebabkan tulang menjadi kolaps atau hancur, yang tentunya selain akan menimbulkan rasa sakit pada tulang, juga bisa menyebabkan terjadinya kelainan bentuk fisik tubuh seperti tubuh menjadi bungkuk atau saat berjalan membungkuk. Osteoporosis adalah penyakit tulang yang terjadi sebagai akibat berkurangnya kepadatan tulang (densitas), perubahan struktur jaringan pada tulang, dan menurunnya kekuatan tulang sehingga menyebabkan tulang menjadi keropos, rapuh serta mudah patah. Tulang yang sering mengalami keropos seperti di bagian tulang belakang, pinggul, dan tulang pergelangan tangan.

Bila ditinjau dari jenis kelamin, wanita cenderung beresiko mengalami osteoporosis karena sering mengalami kekurangan nutrisi tulang akibat terhentinya produksi hormon dibandingkan pria. Kebanyakan kaum wanita, akan mengalami peningkatan resiko tulang keropos (osteoporosis) setelah menopause. Hal ini disebabkan kadar estrogen yang menurun tajam setelah menopause, dimana wanita beresiko kehilangan sekitar 20 persen atau lebih kepadatan tulangnya. Selain itu, dikarenakan struktur tulang pria lebih besar dan umumnya pria mengalami perubahan hormon yang lebih lambat, maka tingkat resiko osteoporosis pada pria lebih rendah bila dibandingkan dengan wanita. Penyakit osteoporosis ini sering terjadi ketika usia di atas 50 tahun, namun bisa saja terjadi pada wanita menjelang usia 40 tahun. Hal ini dikarenakan kepadatan tulang akan mencapai puncaknya saat usia sekitar 30 tahun, dan setelah itu massa tulang turun secara perlahan. Pada wanita  penurunan massa tulang bisa berlangsung lebih cepat manakala memasuki fase menopause, dikarenakan tubuh memproduksi esterogen lebih sedikit. Esterogen tersebut bermanfaat untuk melindungi tubuh dari kekurangan tulang.

Namun demikian, bisa saja terjadi resiko proses pengroposan tulang (osteoporosis) berlangsung lebih awal, yang diakibatkan oleh beberapa faktor seperti :
  1. Kekurangan kalsium, vitamin D, yang kedua-duanya diperlukan oleh tulang agar tetap kuat dan sehat
  2. Kurang mengkonsumsi buah-buahan dan sayuran,
  3. Sering mengkonsumsi kafein, minuman beralkohol, dan merokok
  4. Menderita penyakit tertentu seperti kelainan pada hati atau ginjal, diabetes,dsb
  5. Mengkonsumsi obat-obatan untuk penyakit tertentu justru meningkatkan resiko kehilangan kepadatan tulang, apalagi digunakan dalam waktu lama seperti kortikosteroid untuk mengobati penyakit asma, rematoid arthritis, obat-obatan untuk menurunkan hormon seks, obat anti kejang, dsb.
  6. Faktor keturunan (genetic) 
Untuk mengetahui seseorang mengalami osteoporosis, bisa dilihat dari gejala atau kondisi, sebagai berikut :
  1. Mengalami patah tulang secara tiba-tiba atau hanya karena cedera ringan seperti terjatuh. Hal ini mungkin terjadi dikarenakan tulang yang keropos. Bagian tulang yang rentan mengalami patah adalah pada tulang punggung, tulang panggul, tulang lengan pada sambungan pergelangan tangan , dsb.
  2. Proses penyembuhan tulang yang patah berlangsung secara perlahan (relatif lambat).
  3. Mengalami gangguan tulang lainnya seperti nyeri pada tulang belakang menahun dan bisa timbul nyeri secara spontan terutama di bagian punggung saat  berdiri atau berjalan. Bila bagian punggung ini dipegang akan menimbulkan rasa sakit luar biasa, namun akan hilang dengan sendirinya dalam beberapa hari atau beberapa minggu kemudian
  4. Punggung bagian atas melengkung ke depan membentuk kelengkungan yang abnormal dari tulang belakang, menimbulkan ketegangan otot, serta rasa nyeri pada bagian punggung
  5. Tinggi tubuh akan mengalami penurunan (lebih pendek) akibat tulang belakang yang melengkung dan saat jalan terlihat tulang punggung yang makin membungkuk. 
Nah, bila anda atau orang terdekat anda mengalami osteoporosis, jangan buru-buru panik, yuk simak 12 Cara paling cepat dan jitu mengobati serta mencegah osteoporosis (tulang keropos), berikut ini :
  1. Melakukan tes kepadatan tulang (densitometri) dengan mengunjungi pusat kesehatan/rumah sakit untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kepadatan tulang termasuk pada kategori : kepadatan normal, densitas rendah (osteopenia) dan osteoporosis
  2. Jika ternyata positif mengalami osteoporosis, lakukan upaya untuk meningkatkan kepadatan tulang, dengan mengkonsumsi kalsium dan vitamin D dalam jumlah yang cukup.
  3. Jika mengalami patah tulang misalnya tulang panggul, lakukan segera tindakan pembedahan. Bila patah tulang pada pergelangan tangan, segera di-gips atau bisa juga diperbaiki dengan pembedahan. Untuk kolaps pada tulang belakang yang disertai nyeri punggung hebat, bisa dilakukan pemasangan supportive back brace dan melakukan terapi fisik. Untuk mengurangi rasa sakit atau nyeri pada tulang belakang secara cepat, dapat dilakukan dengan langkah-langkah yang selengkapnya dapat anda baca pada artikel disini
  4. Melakukan olah raga (latihan) secara teratur (1 minggu 3-4 kali) untuk meningkatkan kepadatan tulang dengan program latihan yang bertujuan untuk membangun dan mempertahankan kepadatan tulang terutama tulang belakang (punggung), tulang pinggul,  pergelangan tangan, kaki, dsb. Latihan  menahan beban dan penguatan otot merupakan yang paling efektif karena bisa melatih tulang dan otot bekerja dengan menitikberatkan mengangkat berat tubuh melawan gravitasi, selain juga bermanfaat untuk menjaga keseimbangan tubuh. Contohnya : dansa, senam aerobik low/high impact, berjalan cepat (termasuk berjalan di treadmill), jogging (berlari), melompat-lompat (jumping rope), bermain tennis, badminton, menaiki-menuruni tangga, mengangkat berat badan sendiri, yoga, tai-chi, dsb
  5. Mencukupi kebutuhan kalsium dan vitamin D yang merupakan bagian terpenting untuk menjaga kekuatan tulang. Kalsium berperan mendukung struktur tulang, sedangkan vitamin D meningkatkan penyerapan kalsium oleh tubuh untuk pertumbuhan tulang. Kebutuhan vitamin D setiap hari sebesar 200-400 IU (International Unit) yang diperlukan tubuh untuk menstimulasi penyerapan kalsium dari makanan yang dikonsumsi. Tubuh dapat membuat vitamin D dari paparan sekitar 10-15 menit sinar matahari setiap pagi hari (antara pukul 06.00-09.00 pagi). Sinar matahari ini diperlukan dalam membantu mengoptimalkan kinerja vitamin D.
  6. Selain itu vitamin D bisa didapat dengan mengkonsumsi multivitamin atau suplemen yang mengandung vitamin D seperti minyak hati ikan kod, mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung vitamin D, seperti kuning telur, susu, ikan laut, keju, dan hati, buah-buahan seperti jeruk, alpukat
  7. Pemenuhan kebutuhan kalsium sebanyak 1000 mg kalsium setiap harinya untuk orang dewasa (usia < 50 tahun), dan 1200 mg kalsium (usia diatas 50 tahun)
  8. Untuk pemenuhan Kalsium, bisa dengan mengkonsumsi makanan dan minuman yang kaya akan kandungan kalsium alami seperti susu, keju, yoghurt, ikan salmon, sarden kaleng, tuna, mackerel, udang, tiram, sayuran hijau seperti bayam, brokoli, sawi hijau, lobak, kubis, kacang-kacangan seperti almond, kedelai (tahu, tempe, susu kedelai), kacang hijau, gandum utuh (sereal), minyak zaitun, dsb.
  9. Mengkonsumsi obat-obatan yang lulus uji dan telah disetujui untuk pengobatan atau pencegahan osteoporosis, seperti :
    • Biophosphonates Alendronate (Fosamax), bisa digunakan untuk jangka panjang dan terbukti efektif pada wanita dalam mengurangi keropos tulang, meningkatkan kepadatan tulang, terutama pada tulang belakang, tulang pinggul, sehingga bisa mengurangi risiko fraktur.
    • Biophosphonate Risedronate (Actonel) yang terbukti efektif  pada pria dalam memperlambat keropos tulang, menambah kepadatan tulang,  mengurangi risiko fraktur tulang belakang, dan tulang lainnya.
    • Calcitonin (Miacalcin) merupakan hormon alami yang terlibat dalam pengaturan kalsium dan metabolisme tulang. Calcitonin diberikan melalui suntikan atau disemprotkan melalui hidung. Calcitonin dipercaya bisa memperlambat keropos tulang, menambah kepadatan tulang terutama tulang belakang, dan mengurangi rasa sakit akibat fraktur tulang.
    • Hormon paratiroid atau Teriparatide (Forteo) yang akan membantu pembentukan tulang baru sekaligus menambah kepadatan tulang, mengurangi fraktur terutama tulang belakang, pinggul, kaki, tulang rusuk, dan pergelangan tangan.
    • Raloxifene (Evista) merupakan Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) yang dapat menurunkan tingkat fraktur tulang belakang (vertebral) sekitar 30-50%.
    • Ibandronat (Bonviva), Asam Zoledronic (Aclesta), Strontium (Protos) yang dipercaya bisa merangsang pembentukan tulang sekaligus menghentikan resorpsi yakni terjadinya aktivitas pemecahan tulang oleh osteoklas yang bisa menyebabkan pelepasan kalsium dan fosfat atau mineral tulang ke dalam darah 
  10. Jangan merokok atau mengkonsumsi minuman beralkohol
  11. Khusus bagi wanita, sebaiknya jangan menggunakan sepatu high heels (bertumit tinggi) 
  12. Bila anda lebih senang menggunakan obat-obatan alami, bisa menggunakan madu dan propolis 

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