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15 Tips Ampuh dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Kejang (Stuip atau Step) pada Anak Balita

Kejang atau di masyarakat Indonesia lebih dikenal dengan sebutan stuip atau step, banyak dialami oleh anak-anak terutama pada balita usia kurang dari 5 tahun. Kejang timbul akibat terjadinya kontraksi otot secara berlebihan pada waktu tertentu tanpa bisa dikendalikan. Bila kejang terjadi, maka harus segera ditangani dan jangan dianggap remeh, karena bisa jadi hal ini merupakan suatu tanda anak terserang penyakit tertentu. Penyebab yang memicu timbulnya kejang, antara lain :
  1. Mengalami demam tinggi diatas batas toleransi yakni sekitar 38 °C sampai 39 °C. Sehingga bila suhu tubuh anak melewati batas toleransi tersebut maka anak akan mengalami kejang yang disebut kejang demam (convalsio febrillis).
  2. Terserang penyakit seperti : cacar air, campak, typus / thypoid, influenza (flu), radang tenggorokan (infeksi saluran pernafasan), dehidrasi akibat diare atau muntah-muntah, infeksi, dsb.
  3. Kelainan pada syaraf otak, cedera di bagian kepala, penyakit epilepsy, konsumsi obat-obatan, dsb 
Kondisi kejang demam yang dialami anak kebanyakan terjadi hanya beberapa detik dan biasanya tidak berbahaya. Meskipun kejang demam hanya berlangsung dalam waktu singkat, namun sering kali membuat orang tua menjadi panic dan kalang kabut saat menyaksikan buah hatinya mengalami kejang. Parahnya lagi karena kebingungan dan tidak mengerti kondisi yang sedang terjadi pada anak, terkadang orang tua salah dalam melakukan langkah-langkah penanganannya yang justru bisa membahayakan bagi si anak. Berikut ini beberapa gejala atau tanda-tanda anak mengalami kejang :
  1. Tubuh tersentak dan mulai kaku
  2. Bola mata memutar dan terbalik ke atas (melihat ke atas arah kening).
  3. Kedua tangan dan kaki menjadi kaku disertai gerakan kejut.
  4. Gigi antara rahang bawah dan atas terkatup.
  5. Mengeluarkan air liur, atau kadang disertai muntah dan nafas terhenti sesaat
  6. Kulit tampak sedikit lebih gelap
  7. Bila sudah parah biasanya, anak tidak sadarkan diri (pingsan).
  8. Kejang terjadi selama beberapa detik hingga beberapa menit (sekitar 5 – 15 menit) 
Mengobati serta Mencegah Kejang (Stuip atau Step) pada Anak Balita

Mengobati serta Mencegah Kejang (Stuip atau Step) pada Anak Balita


Bila ternyata kejang yang terjadi sudah lebih dari 1 menit, maka kita selaku orang tua harus waspada.Apalagi bila kejang timbul berulang-ulang dan sudah berlangsung lama (lebih dari 5 menit) karena dikhawatirkan jika anak mengalami kejang berulang-ulang dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan pada sel-sel otak. Saat kejang terjadi, darah akan mengalami kekurangan oksigen termasuk yang dipompakan ke otak sehingga bisa menyebakan sel-sel otak mengalami kerusakan. Kerusakan pada sel-sel otak (cidera otak) ini dapat menyebabkan epilepsi, kelainan motorik (pergerakan alat-alat tubuh), gangguan mental, kelumpuhan, dsb. Namun demikian, kejang akibat demam hampir tidak pernah menyebabkan kerusakan pada otak meskipun terkadang kejang demam berlangsung lama.

Banyak orang beranggapan dan sering kali menghubungkan kejadian kejang pada anak dengan gejala penyakit epilepsy, padahal kejang pada kasus epilepsi berbeda dengan kejang demam. Biasanya kejang epilepsy tidak disebabkan atau disertai dengan demam. Memang sih, ada kemungkinan epilepsi timbul pada anak yang telah beberapa kali mengalami kejang demam. Berdasarkan penelitian para ahli bahwa 2% - 4% anak yang pernah mengalami kejang demam bisa berpeluang mengalami epilepsy daripada anak yang tidak pernah mengalami kejang sama sekali.

Bila anak anda sedang mengalami kejang, sebaiknya anda jangan panik.dan membuat heboh sampai teriak-teriak panggil tetangga. Cobalah anda untuk tetap tenang, karena kejang akan berhenti dengan sendirinya dalam beberapa menit. Nah, tips berikut ini mudah-mudahan bisa bermanfaat buat anda. Ini dia, 15 Tips ampuh dan paling manjur mengobati serta mencegah kejang (stuip atau step) pada anak balita, antara lain :

Mengobati kejang :

  1. Letakan anak pada tempat yang aman, bagian kepala jangan sampai terbentur atau terjatuh. Untuk mencegah resiko jatuh sebaiknya anak dalam posisi di tidurkan di lantai yang dialas dengan kasur atau matras lembut.
  2. Longgarkan pakaian yang dipakai agar jalan udara tidak terhambat dan memudahkan anak bernapas untuk mendapatkan oksigen lebih banyak.
  3. Bila disertai muntah atau produksi air liur berlebih karena kelenjar air liur tidak terkontrol, maka miringkan tubuh anak ke salah satu sisi untuk menghindari terhalangnya saluran pernapasan atau tersedak akibat tertelannya cairan air liur atau muntah.
  4. Hindari menurunkan demam anak dengan menempatkannya pada ruangan ber-AC dengan suhu yang terlalu dingin, lebih baik buka jendela agar sirkulasi udara dalam ruangan cukup baik.
  5. Kompres bagian kepala dan tubuh anak (leher, ketiak, paha) dengan handuk yang telah direndam air hangat untuk menurunkan panasnya. Ingat, jangan gunakan air dingin (es) atau alkohol untuk mengkompres/menurunkan panas. Mengenai cara mengkompres, selengkapnya dapat anda baca
  6. Hindari memasukan benda apapun ke dalam mulut (sendok, kayu, kain, dsb) karena berisiko membahayakan anak (tertelan, merusak gigi, cedera rongga mulut, dsb) termasuk memberi obat atau memberi minuman (air). Jika ingin memberikan minum, sebaiknya tunggu beberapa saat setelah kejang berhenti agar anak tidak tersedak.
  7. Hindari untuk menahan gerakan anak selama kejang, dan anda harus segera menyingkirkan benda-benda berbahaya dari sekitarnya yang kemungkinan bisa melukainya saat ia kejang.
  8. Gunakan obat diazepam rectal (misalnya Stesolid) untuk menghilangkan kejang. Diazepam ini berbentuk cair dan digunakan pada waktu kejang. Caranya dengan memasukan cairan obat tersebut melalui dubur anak dengan menggunakan kemasannya yang dibuat sedemikian rupa agar obat mudah dimasukan lewat dubur. Dosisnya, untuk anak dengan berat kurang dari 10 kg, diberikan Diazepam 5 mg. Sementara anak dengan berat badan lebih dari 10 kg, diberikan Diazepam 10 mg.
  9. Bila kejang berlangsung sudah lebih dari 5 menit, dan terjadi berulang-ulang atau anak terlihat lemah setelah kejang berakhir atau kulitnya membiru, maka segera bawa anak ke dokter atau klinik kesehatan terdekat untuk mendapat penanganan. Hal ini juga untuk menghindari resiko fatal akibat anak terlambat mendapat pertolongan medis (misal terganggunya sel otak karena kekurangan oksigen). Bila dari hasil diagnosa dokter bahwa kejang  tersebut membahayakan anak, maka dokter akan merujuk  si anak ke dokter spesialis anak atau dokter spesialis saraf untuk mendapatkan penanganan yang tepat. 
Bila anak anda pernah mengalami kejang, maka ada kemungkinan iabisa mengalami kejang kembali sehingga anda harus mempersiapkan tindakan pencegahannya, antara lain :
  1. Pada saat anak demam, ukur suhu tubuhnya dengan thermometer. Suhu tubuh normal anak berkisar antara 36-37 °C. Anak dinyatakan demam bila suhu tubuhnya diatas 37 °C, yakni 37.5 °C bila diukur melalui mulut/telinga atau bila diukur melalui rectum/dubur suhunya 38 °C atau bila diukur melalui ketiak suhunya 37,2 °C. Cara mengukur suhu tubuh anak yang benar selengkapnya dapat anda baca
  2. Bila suhu tubuh anak diatas 37,5 °C (misal lebih dari 38.2 °C) kemungkinan terjadi kejang demam. Untuk mengurangi resiko tersebut, maka ketika anak mulai demam sebaiknya diberikan paracetamol atau ibuprofen untuk menurunkan panasnya. Untuk cara pemberian obat demam, selengkapnya dapat anda baca 
  3. Ketika suhu anak mulai naik, segeralah kompres dengan menggunakan air hangat, jangan pakai air dingin (es) untuk menurunkan panasnya.
  4. Saat anak demam, lakukan pengukuran suhu setiap 1 jam sekali. Hal ini sangat penting agar suhu badan anak tidak melebihi ambang batas toleransi (38 °C sampai 39 °C). Karena bila telah mencapai 38 °C atau lebih maka kemungkinan besar bisa memicu terjadinya kejang demam.
  5. Jika anak memang sudah punya riwayat kejang, sebaiknya anda mempersiapkan obat penurun panas dan obat anti kejang (stesolid) di rumah atau ketika bepergian.
  6. Bila anda lebih menyukai obat alami untuk menurunkan demam, anak bisa diberikan madu, kurma, zaitun, atau habbatussauda. Selengkapnya mengenai khasiat obat alami tersebut, dapat anda baca 

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