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16 Langkah Ampuh dan Paling Mujarab Mengobati dan Mencegah Penyakit TBC (Tuberculosis atau Tuberkulosis)

Penyakit menular yang bersifat mematikan, salah satunya adalah Tuberculosis atau Tuberkulosis (TB/TBC). Berdasarkan data Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN), penyakit TBC ini termasuk penyebab kematian nomor 4 tertinggi setelah stroke, diabetes, dan hipertensi untuk masyarakat yang tinggal di perkotaan, bahkan merupakan penyakit penyebab kematian nomor 2 tertinggi setelah strokeuntuk masyarakat di pedesaan. Penyakit ini disebabkan infeksi oleh mikobakteria berbentuk basilus (batang) yakniMycobacterium tuberculosis. Bakteri ini selain menyerang paru-paru, juga bisa menyebar melalui pembuluh darah dan menyerang organ tubuh lainnya seperti kelenjar getah bening, tulang, otak, ginjal, jantung, saluran pencernaan terutama usus, dsb. Namun kasus Infeksi TBC terbesar dan paling sering ditemukan adalah pada paru-paru, dimana bakteri merusak jaringan paru-paru, menimbulkan efek parah, dan menyebabkan kematian.

Penyakit TBC termasuk jenis penyakit yang relative sangat mudah menular. Media penularan/penyebaran penyakit TBC atau Tuberkulosis dengan cara droplet infection yakni ketika seseorang yang terinfeksi TB mengalami batuk, bersin, atau dari air ludah yang mengandung bakteri yang dilepaskan ke udara dalam bentuk cairan/butiran (aerosol) dan tanpa sengaja terhirup oleh orang lain yang berada di sekitar penderita TB misalnya ketika berada di rumah, sekolah, tempat kerja (kantor), atau di tempat fasilitas umum lainnya (stasiun, terminal, bandara, mall, dsb). Bila tertular bakteri, orang yang memiliki daya tahan tubuh dan gizi yang baik tidak mudah terserang penyakit TBC ini karena bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis menjadi bersifat pasif (dorman). Sebaliknya, mereka yang daya tahan tubuhnya rendah seperti pada golongan anak-anak dan lanjut usia, orang kekurangan gizi, tinggal di lingkungan kurang sehat yakni lingkungan yang lembab, kurang cahaya matahari, kurang sirkulasi udara (ventilasi yang buruk), serta mengandung banyak bakteri penyebab TBC, maka akan sangat beresiko terinfeksi TBC karena bakteri menjadi aktif (TBC aktif).


Bila bakteri penyebab TBC menjadi aktif di dalam tubuh, akan merusak jaringan terutama paru-paru apalagi saat penyakit TB/TBC sudah parah, maka akan muncul tanda-tanda dan gejala yang umum, antara lain :
  • Batuk terus-menerus (tidak sembuh-sembuh) dan berdahak selama 2 minggu atau lebih. Namun bila batuk dengan durasi lama dan tidak mengeluarkan dahak kemungkinan merupakan gejala serangan asma (asthma). Mengenai penyakit asma (asthma) beserta cara penanganannya dapat anda baca selengkapnya pada artikel disini
  • Dahak kental bercampur darah atau batuk darah
  • Sesak napas dan rasa nyeri pada bagian dada yang disebabkan infeksi bakteri pada paru-paru ataupun saluran pernapasan. Bila dilihat melalui foto rontgen akan tampak seperti flek pada paru-paru, yang berarti telah terjadi kerusakan pada jaringan paru tersebut.
  • Demam (meriang panas-dingin) merupakan pertanda masa inkubasi bakteri. Biasanya saat demam, suhu tidak terlalu tinggi (mirip demam influenza biasa) namun terjadi berulang-ulang dan telah berlangsung lebih dari 1 bulan serta biasanya demam terjadi di malam hari
  • Berkeringat pada malam hari tanpa penyebab yang jelas
  • Badan lemah (lesu), perasaan tidak enak atau tidak bergairah, kelelahan (lemas), dan lambat dalam beraktivitas
  • Nafsu makan menurun (tidak selera makan) dan pada beberapa kasus anak-anak bahkan ia tidak mau makan sama sekali sehingga terjadi penurunan berat badannya secara drastis
  • Urine berwarna kemerahan atau keruh.

Gejala TB/TBC lainnya tergantung dari organ tubuh mana yang terkena infeksi bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis :
  • Bila terjadi sumbatan pada bronkus yakni saluran yang menuju ke paru-paru, maka akan menekan kelenjar getah bening dan menimbulkan suara mengi, (suara nafas melemah yang disertai sesak).
  • Bila terdapat cairan pada rongga pleura (pembungkus paru-paru), akan terasa keluhan sakit (nyeri) pada bagian dada.
  • Bila infeksi menyebar pada tulang, akan muncul gejala seperti infeksi tulang yakni nyeri tulang punggung dan kerusakan sendi termasuk rasa nyeri pada tulang rusuk.
  • Pada Jantung, bakteri bisa menginfeksi jaringan sekitar jantung, menyebabkan radang dan cairan yang mengganggu kerja jantung (cardiac tamponade) yang bisa berakibat fatal.
  • Pada Hati dan ginjal yang berfungsi membantu menyaring limbah dan kotoran dari dalam darah akan mengalami gangguan akibat infeksi bakteri ini
  • Pada anak-anak, infeksi bakteri bisa mengenai otak yakni lapisan pembungkus otak sehingga mengalami pembengkakan selaput otak serta sumsum tulang belakang, dan biasanya disebut sebagai penyakit meningitis (radang selaput otak), gejalanya adalah demam tinggi, dan penurunan kesadaran serta mengalami kejang-kejang
  • Bila bakteri ini menyerang saluran pencernaan seperti usus, maka akan mengalami diare yang berulang dan tidak kunjung sembuh dengan pengobatan diare biasa. Hal ini sering ditemukan terutama kasus TBC yang terjadi pada anak-anak.

Untuk Gejala TB/TBC pada anak-anak, agak sedikit berbeda antara lain :
  • Anak memiliki sejarah kontak erat dengan orang dewasa (serumah atau sering melakukan kontak dengan si anak) yang memiliki hasil pemeriksaan Basil Tahan Asam (BTA) positif
  • Reaksi kemerahan cepat (3-7 hari) pada kulit setelah penyuntikan vaksin BCG
  • Tidak nafsu makan, dan berat badan turun dalam kurun waktu 3 bulan tanpa sebab yang jelas, serta tidak naik dalam 1 bulan meskipun sudah mendapatkan penanganan gizi yang baik
  • Demam yang berlangsung lama serta berulang tanpa sebab yang jelas (bukan karena tifus, malaria atau infeksi saluran nafas akut/ISPA), yang disertai keringat pada malam hari.
  • Terjadi pembesaran pada kelenjar terutama didaerah leher, ketiak dan lipatan paha (inguinal).
  • Mengalami batuk-batuk lebih dari 3 minggu dan pada bagian dada terasa nyeri (sakit)
  • Terdapat tanda-tanda dan gejala TBC secara umum dan lainnya seperti yang telah disebutkan diatas
  • Perlu dicatat bahwa kasus TB/TBC pada anak-anak tidak bersifat menular kepada anak-anak lainnya. TB/TBC yang menyerang anak-anak diakibatkan penularan dari penderita TB orang dewasa. Maksudnya ada orang dewasa yang menderita TBC sebagai sumber penularannya yang perlu dicari dan segera diobati agar tidak menularkan bakteri ke orang atau anak-anak lainnya.

Untuk lebih memastikan seseorang mengidap TBC adalah dengan melakukan tes laboratorium (Test TBA, Rontgen bagian dada (thorax), Tes Mantoux atau Uji Tuberkulinpada anak-anak, dsb). Nah, jika dari hasil pemeriksaan atau diagnosa dokter diketahui anda atau anggota keluarga positif mengidap TBC, jangan buru-buru panic karena pada artikel ini ada tips untuk mengobati dan mencegahnya. Yuk, simak 16 Langkah Ampuh dan Paling Mujarab Mengobati dan Mencegah Penyakit TBC (Tuberculosis atau Tuberkulosis), berikut ini :
Cara untuk mengobati TB/TBC :
  1. Orang dengan TB aktif harus minum beberapa jenis obat selama berbulan-bulan untuk membasmi infeksi dan mencegah perkembangan resistensi antibiotic pada bakteri. Obat-obatan yang paling umum digunakan untuk mengobati tuberkulosis seperti:
    • Isoniazid atau isonikotinil hidrazid (INH)
    • Rifampisin (Rifampicin)
    • Etambutol (Ethambutol)
    • Pirazinamid (Pyrazinamide)
  1. Pengobatan tuberkulosis (TB/TBC) paru-paru harus dilakukan secara terus menerus selama 6 hingga 9 bulan dengan memakai kombinasi antibiotik :
    • Pada 2 Bulan pertama : Rifampicin, Isoniazid (INH), Pyrazinamide,
    • Pada 4 Bulan & selanjutnya : Rifampisin dan Isoniazid
    • Apabila terjadi resistensi tinggi terhadap Isoniazid (INH), maka etambutol dapat ditambahkan untuk 4 bulan & selanjutnya
  1. Beberapa merk obat untuk TB/TBC yang beredar dipasaran beserta komposisi (kandungan obat), sebagai berikut  :
    • TB Vit6® (tablet, syrup) produksi meprofarm à mengandung Isoniazid
    • INH Ciba®, produksi sandoz à mengandung Isoniazid
    • Isoniazide®, produksi Indofarma à mengandung Isonoazid
    • Rifampin capsule®, produksi Pharos à mengandung Rifampicin
    • Rifamtibi®, produksi Sanbe à mengandung Rifampicin
    • Rifampicin®, produksi Hexpharm Jaya à mengandung Rifampicin
    • Rimactane®, produksi Kimia Farma à mengandung Rifampicin
    • Rifa NH®, produksi Indofarma à mengandung Rifampicin & Isoniazid
    • Pyrazinamide®, produksi Indofarma à mengandung Pirazinamid
    • Ethambutol®, produksi indofarma à mengandung Etambutol
    • Santibi Plus® produksi Sanbe à mengandung Ethambutol, Isoniazid
    • Rifastar®,produksi Indofarma à mengandung Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambuthol
    • Kombipak untuk anak, produksi Indofarma à mengandung Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamid untuk anak-anak
  1. Selama pengobatan, penderita harus tekun dan disiplin meminum obat tanpa terputus baik jenis, jumlah, dan dosis obatnya serta melakukan kontrol ke dokter secara rutin untuk memastikan progres pengobatan hingga pasien dianggap benar-benar sembuh total. Biasanya setelah mengkonsumsi obat-obatan tersebut selama beberapa minggu (sekitar 8-12 minggu), kondisi penderita akan lebih baik dan tidak akan menularkan bakteri. Namun perlu diingat bahwa pengobatan harus tuntas dan jangan tergoda untuk berhenti minum obat TBC yang telah ditentukan dosisnya.
  2. Jangan sekali-kali menghentikan pengobatan terlalu cepat atau melewatkan dosis yang dianjurkan karena bisa menyebabkan bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang masih hidup menjadi resistensi (kebal/tidak mempan) terhadap obat-obatan tersebut. Hal ini akan menyebabkan penyakit TBC menjadi jauh lebih berbahaya serta menjadi lebih sulit untuk diobati, sehingga anda harus mengkonsumsi obat-obatan yang lebih keras lagi untuk membasmi bakteri tersebut.
  3. Mengkonsumsi makanan yang sehat dan bergizi (4 sehat 5 sempurna) seperti karbohidrat, protein, sayuran, buahan, multivitamin, dsb.
  4. Menjalankan pola hidup sehat dengan berolahraga secara teratur serta istirahat yang cukup untuk meningkatkan stamina tubuh dan mempercepat proses penyembuhan.
  5. Jika anda merokok, segeralah berhenti karena merokok bisa menurunkan daya tahan paru-paru, jangan mengkonsumsi minuman beralkohol, apalagi memakai narkoba.
  6. Jangan meludah di sembarang tempat dan bila memang ingin meludah sebaiknya pada tempat yang terkena sinar matahari. Hal ini untuk menghindari penyebaran bakteri penyebab TBC kepada orang lain.
  7. Bila anda ingin mencoba kombinasi pengobatan TB/TBC secara alami,, bisa dengan mengkonsumsi madu propolis dan habbatussauda
Langkah untuk Mencegah TB/TBC :
  1. Menerapkan pola hidup sehat dengan mengkonsumsi makanan sehat dan bergizi, berolahraga secara teratur, istirahat yang cukup, untuk menjaga kebugaran sekaligus meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh.
  2. Menjaga kebersihan lingkungan, membuat ventilasi ruangan yang memadai agar sirkulasi udara, serta cahaya matahari dapat mencapai ruangan (tidak lembab)..
  3. Melakukan imunisasi terhadap bayi dan balita dengan vaksin BCG untuk mencegah terjangkit bakteri penyebab TBC
  4. Menjemur kasur/tempat tidur dibawah terik matahari untuk membunuh bakteri, apalagi kasur yang dipakai penderita TBC.
  5. Menghindari kontak dengan penderita TBC aktif serta menutup mulut dan hidung ketika ada seseorang yang sedang batuk atau bersin untuk mencegah kemungkinan penularan bakteri.
  6. Perlu menjadi perhatian bahwa orang yang sudah pernah terkena TBC dan sembuh, kemungkinan bisa saja kembali terjangkit penyakit ini, bila tidak melakukan tindakan pencegahan.

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