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16 Tips Ampuh dan Paling Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Infeksi Jamur (Panu, Kadas/Kurap)

Iklim di negara tropis seperti di Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philipina, dll yang lembab dan hangat karena pancaran sinar matahari sering membuat penduduknya menjadi gerah dan mudah berkeringat ketika melakukan aktivitas. Kondisi ini menyebabkan permukaan kulit cenderung menjadi hangat dan lembab dan cendrung memungkinkan berbagai jenis jamur kulit untuk berkembang biak serta menginfeksi bagian tubuh manusia terutama bagian tubuh yang tertutup. Penyakit kulit yang disebabkan karena infeksi jamur (dermatophytosis) dikenal dengan sebutan penyakit kadas atau kurap (tinea). Kadas dan kurap merupakan penyakit kulit yang sejenis. Kadas atau kurap disebabkan beberapa jenis jamur dermatofita yang berbeda seperti Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum dan Epidermophyton floccosum. Penyakit ini bisa timbul akibat pola hidup yang tidak bersih (jorok), sering menggunakan pakaian ketat, kulit mengeluarkan banyak keringat sehingga menjadi lembab, dll

Meskipun anda sudah membiasakan hidup bersih, mandi 2x sehari, bekerja di ruangan dengan pendingin ruangan (AC), namun masih tetap beresiko terkena penyakit kulit ini karena penyakit kadas atau kurap bersifat menular melalui kontak langsung pada permukaan kulit penderita saat bersinggungan atau bersentuhan, memakai bersama barang seperti pakaian, selimut, handuk, sisir, dsb dengan orang yang telah terinfeksi jamur kulit. Meskipun jamur kulit ini tidak berbahayanamun bila tidak segera diobati, bisa menimbulkan resiko infeksi sekunder oleh bakteri lainnya.

Kadas atau kurap bisa menyerang seluruh bagian kulit manusia yang akan menimbulkan tanda atau gejala yang berbeda tergantung dimana lokasi infeksi jamur tersebut terjadi. Penjelasannya sebagai berikut :
  1. Tinea capitis atau Tinea tonsurans (kurap kulit kepala) adalah infeksi jamur Trichophyton dan Microsporum, disertai dengan peradangan (seperti tambalan) dan gatal pada kulit kepala, ketombe, serta bisa menyebabkan kerontokan rambut. Kulit kepala yang terkena kurap biasanya tidak akan ditumbuhi rambut sehingga menimbulkan kebotakan (pitak). Pengobatan bisa dilakukan dengan obat anti jamur berupa shampoo Nizoral ™ serta obat oral (diminum) seperti griseofulvin, terbinafine , itraconazole , dan fluconazole.
  2. Tinea corporis atau Tinea circinata (Kurap) adalah infeksi jamur pada kulit bagian lengan dan kaki, namun dapat juga terjadi pada sebagian tubuh lain seperti pinggang, bokong, leher, badan, dada, dsb. Biasanya luka berbentuk seperti cincin (pulau), berwarna merah, terasa gatal, nyeri, terkadang melepuh, mengeluarkan cairan, bahkan dapat menyebar luas keseluruh permukaan kulit di tubuh. Pinggir bagian yang meradang akan tampak terangkat, bersisik halus (termasuk kulit di sekitarnya), rambut di area infeksi akan mengalami kerontokan. Pengobatan memakai salep (krim) anti jamur seperti clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, terbinafine, tolnaftate, butenafine. Untuk mempercepat penyembuhan serta mencegah infeksi sekunder akibat luka kurap, bisa diikuti dengan penggunaan obat anti jamur oral (diminum) seperti itraconazole dan terbinafine. 
  3. Tinea cruris  atau Tinea inguinalis  (kurap pangkal paha/selangkangan) adalah infeksi jamur Trichophyton rubrum dan jamur lain seperti Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes dan Epidermophyton floccosum, yang terjadi pada pangkal paha (selangkangan). Menimbulkan rasa gatal seperti terbakar di kedua belah sisi daerah selangkangan, lipatan kulit paha, atau anus. Bagian yang terkena tampak berwarna merah kecokelatan, mengelupas, atau pecah-pecah pada kulit selangkangan karena mengalami gesekan akibat memakai pakaian yang ketat dan dapat meluas ke bawah lipatan pangkal paha. Pengobatan dengan anti jamur seperti tolnaftate. Namun bila peradangan kulit menyebabkan gatal-gatal, maka glukokortikoid steroid seperti salep hydrocortisone ™, dapat dikombinasikan dengan obat anti-jamur tersebut untuk membantu mencegah iritasi menjadi lebih parah.
  4. Tinea pedis atau Tinea pedum atau Athlete's foot (kurap kaki) sering disebut masyarakat awam dengan kutu air adalah infeksi yang disebabkan oleh jamur Trichophyton rubrum atau Trichophyton mentagrophytes, pada kulit kaki, sela-sela jari kaki. Kulit yang mengalami peradangan akan memerah dan mengelupas, gatal, terasa seperti terbakar, kulit pecah-pecah, pengerasan kulit, dan sering menimbulkan bau akibat infeksi bakteri sekunder seperti Streptococcus pyogenes atau Staphylococcus aureus. Pengobatan bisa dengan anti jamur topikal (salep/cream) seperti : miconazole , clotrimazole , tolnaftate, terbinafine, butenafine. Untuk alternatif pengobatan, bisa juga dengan larutan 1% kalium permanganat (PK) yang dilarutkan dalam air panas. Namun jika  kondisinya sudah parah, maka obat oral fluconazole atau itraconazole lebih efektif.
  5. Tinea unguium  atau Onychomycosis merupakan infeksi jamur jenis Trichophyton (T. rubrumT. interdigitale , T. violaceum , T. tonsurans , T. soudanense), Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum  pada bagian kuku. Menyebabkan kuku mengalami penebalan, berubah warna putih (buram), hitam, kuning atau hijau dan menjadi rapuh seperti terpotong-potong. Bila tidak segera diobati, kulit dibawah atau sekitar kuku bisa meradang, sakit, timbul bercak putih atau kuning pada kuku,kulit di samping kuku akan bersisik, menimbulkan bau busuk, dan bisa membuat kuku rusak serta terlepas.  Pengobatan dengan menggunakan obat anti jamur, oral (diminum) seperti terbinafine dan itraconazole atau topikal (salep) seperti clotrimazole. Selain itu bisa juga dengan cat kuku yang mengandung ciclopirox (ciclopiroxolamine)
  6. Tinea imbricata atau Tokelau adalah infeksi jamur Trichophyton concentricum  berupa bercak bersisik yang terasa gatal. Biasa menginfeksi orang-orang secara spesifik yang bermukim di Pasifik Selatan (Polinesia), Asia Tenggara, Amerika Tengah, Amerika Selatan, dan Meksiko. Pengobatan bisa dilakukan dengan griseofulvin dan terbinafine yang dikombinasikan degan obat  topikal Whitfield’s Ointment yakni komposisi asam benzoate/benzoic acid 6% + asam salisilat/salicylic acid 3 % atau dengan perbandingan 2 : 1.
  7. Tinea versicolor  atau Tinea flava atau Pityriasis versicolor (Panau / Panu) adalah penyakit kulit yang disebabkan oleh jamur Malassezia globosa atau Malassezia furfur. Sering terjadi saat iklim hangat dan lembab atau berkeringat berat yang ditandai dengan bercak pada kulit disertai rasa gatal (terutama pada saat berkeringat atau mandi dengan air panas). Bercak-bercak pada kulit ini bisa berwarna putih, coklat atau merah tergantung kepada warna kulit si penderita. Pengobatan bisa menggunakan obat anti jamur topikal (salep/krim) seperti clotrimazole, miconazole atau terbinafine atau bisa dikombinasikan dengan anti jamur oral seperti fluconazole, ketoconazole, itrakonazole. Selain itu Ketoconazole (baik salep, obat oral dan shampoo) juga bisa sebagai alternatif obat anti jamur ini. 
Bila anda atau keluarga anda sedang mengalami panu, kadas atau kurap dengan tanda dan gejala seperti disebutkan diatas, jangan khawatir. Yuk, simak 16 Tips ampuh dan paling manjur mengobati serta mencegah penyakit infeksi jamur (panu, kadas/kurap), sebagai berikut :
Pengobatan penyakit panu, kadas atau kurap :
  1. Menggunakan obat-obatan medis yang berfungsi sebagai obat anti jamur berupa  obat topikal yakni lotion, krim, atau salep antijamur. Untuk kategori kadas atau kurap yang ringan bisa menggunakan :
·        Clotrimazole (Fungiderm ™, Canesten ™, Ultrasiline ™)
·         Miconazole (Miconazole ™, Daktarin ™, Kalpanax Krim ™, Funtas ™)
·         Tolnaftate (Tolnaftate Cream ™, Tinactin ™)
·         Ketoconazole (Ketoconazole Cream ™,  Nizoral Cream ™, Daktarin Intensiv ™, Zoralin Krim ™)
  1. Bila kadas atau kurap sudah parah, pengobatan bisa dengan memberikan obat topical lain, seperti :
·         Butenafine (Lotrimin ™, Mentax ™)
·         Ciclopirox (Ciclopirox Cream ™, Loprox Gel ™)
·      Terbinafine (Interbi Cream ™, Lamisil Krim ™, Termisil Krim ™, Xfin ™)
  1. Untuk kadas atau kurap yang sudah parah dan agar bisa mempercepat penyembuhan, diberikan obat oral/diminum (tablet), seperti :
·          Griseofulvin (Griseofulvin ™, Fulcin ™, Grispeg ™)
·      Itraconazole (Sporanox ™,  Sporacid ™, Spyrocon ™, Itzol ™ )
·    Fluconazole (Fluconazole ™,  Diflucan ™, Canesten Capsule ™, Flucoral ™ )
·        Terbinafine (Lamisil ™ Tablet)
·  Ketoconazole (Ketoconazole ™ Tablet, Mycoral ™, Nizoral ™ Tablet, Zoralin ™ Tablet, Formyco ™, Fungoral ™, Mycoderm ™) 
  1. Untuk kadas atau kurap di kulit kepala, bisa menggunakan shampoo Nizoral ™
  2. Perlu anda ketahui dan dipahami bahwa pengobatan infeksi jamur ini tidak bisa sembuh dalam beberapa hari, namun memerlukan waktu sedikitnya 2-4 minggu bahkan bisa lebih lama lagi. Jadi anda harus bersabar selama proses pengobatan ini.
  3. Bila anda ingin menggunakan obat alami bisa memakai madu propolis, yang bisa dioleskan langsung pada daerah yang gatal, digunakan sebagai anti infeksi jamur, atau bakteri, dan diminum sebanyak 4-5 tetes, dosis 3 x sehari. Selain itu anda juga bisa mengkonsumsi obat alami lainnya seperti kapsul habbatussauda (jintan hitam) dan minyak zaitun sebagai anti jamur.
Pencegahan penyakit panu, kadas atau kurap :

  1. Selalu menjaga kebersihan tubuh dan pola hidup sehat yakni mandi minimal 2x sehari dengan memakai sabun atau larutan antiseptic agar tidak mudah terserang jamur, membiasakan mencuci tangan untuk mencegah penyebaran bakteri.
  2. Bila kulit berkeringat, sehabis olah raga, biarkan kering dahulu, kemudian segeralah mandi dengan air bersih (pakai sabun atau larutan antiseptic) agar kulit  tetap bersih, sejuk, kering, dan terbebas  dari jamur serta bakteri
  3. Setelah mandi sebaiknya menaburkan bedak anti jamur terutama di sela-sela jari kaki dan lipatan kulit.
  4. Mengeringkan handuk setelah digunakan, menjemur sepatu, pakaian, dsb dibawah terik matahari.
  5. Merawat dan menjaga kebersihan kuku tangan, kuku kaki, dengan rajin memotong kuku, untuk mencegah berkembang biaknya bakteri dan jamur.
  6. Menjaga kaki agar tetap kering, terutama antara jari-jari kaki yang bisa di lap (dikeringkan) dengan bahan dari katun atau wool, menggunakan kaus kaki berbahan katun, mengganti kaus kaki atau stocking secara teratur, memakai sepatu yang kering dan memiliki ventilasi baik, menggunakan sepatu  kaki kedap air di area yang basah,
  7. Menjaga kulit agar tidak lembab, misalnya tidak mengenakan pakaian yang terlalu ketat (sebaiknya memakai bahan katun dan longgar) atau tidak memakai pakaian tebal untuk waktu yang lama dalam cuaca yang hangat dan lembab yang mengakibatkan kulit banyak mengeluarkan keringat.
  8. .Sering mengganti pakaian minimal 1 kali sehari, apalagi bila sudah kotor dan berkeringat sebaiknya lekas diganti. Pakaian yang kotor atau lembab membuat jamur mudah berkembang biak yang kemudian bisa menempel pada kulit dan menginfeksi tubuh.
  9. Untuk mencegah penularan bakteri, jamur, dari orang lain, jangan pernah berbagi/bertukar barang pribadi (menggunakan secara bersama atau   barang pribadi anda digunakan orang lain atau sebaliknya memakai barang milik orang lain) seperti handuk, pakaian, sisir, sepatu, dsb terlebih-lebih barang milik orang yang sedang terinfeksi jamur kulit. Segera bersihkan bagian kulit yang tanpa sengaja bersentuhan (kontak kulit) dengan orang yang mendertia kadas atau hewan yang terinfeksi kadas/kurap.
  10. Jangan menyentuh hewan yang terinfeksi jamur (biasanya hewan yang terinfeksi jamur ditandai dengan adanya bulu yang hilang pada bagian kulit tertentu).

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