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18 Cara Paling Jitu dan Manjur Mengobati serta Mencegah Penyakit Asthma (Asma atau Bengek)

Pernahkah anda mendengar istilah penyakit Asma (asthma) atau masyarakat awam sering menyebutnya dengan penyakit bengek ? Asma merupakan salah satu penyakit yang banyak diderita masyarakat di Indonesia. Penyakit asma bisa muncul kapan saja dan bisa diderita oleh siapa saja tanpa memandang usia mulai dari anak-anak hingga orang dewasa, baik wanita maupun pria. Asma bila tidak ditangani secara cepat dan tepat, bisa beresiko menyebabkan kematian.

Asma (asthma) merupakan kelainan yang membuat saluran pernapasan menjadi sangat sensitif terhadap rangsangan sehingga mudah mengalami peradangan (inflamasi) kronis berupa penyempitan atau penyumbatan pada saluran pernapasan. Kondisi ini mengakibatkan otot-otot pada saluran pernapasan tegang, selaput lendir meradang, menghasilkan lendir (dahak) yang sulit untuk dikeluarkan, sehingga penderita akhirnya mengalami salah satu atau beberapa kondisi seperti berikut ini :

  1. Pernapasan berbunyi tinggi tapi terdengar menyempit ketika bernapas atau biasa disebut dengan mengi (bengek).
  2. Batuk terus-menerus terutama di malam hari atau ketika cuaca dingin
  3. Sesak napas akibat penyempitan saluran pernapasan, apalagi setelah aktivitas fisik yang berat.
  4. Sesak pada bagian dada, bahkan serangan asma yang hebat secara tiba-tiba menyebabkan si penderita kesulitan berbicara (menyelesaikan kalimat tanpa berhenti) akibat kesulitan menarik napas
  5. Membungkuk dengan posisi bahu terangkat, dan sedang berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk bernapas
  6. Pada anak-anak, gejala awal asma bisa seperti rasa gatal pada rongga dada atau leher. Batuk kering terjadi pada malam hari atau ketika melakukan olah raga
  7. Perasaan cemas berlebihan (stress), mengeluarkan banyak keringat serta  memicu pelepasan histamin dan leukotrien oleh sel mast di sepanjang bronkus dan kemudian memicu kontraksi otot polos, meningkatlan pembentukan lender (mucus), yang akhirnya terjadi penyempitan saluran pernapasan
  8. Bibir atau kuku mulai membiru 

Penyempitan yang terjadi pada saluran napas ini biasanya dapat dipulihkan (reversible) dengan sendirinya atau setelah diberikan terapi yang tepat (seperti pemberian obat kimia atau alami yang berperan sebagai bronkodilator). Melalui terapi yang tepat akan membuat saluran pernapasan  kembali melebar sehingga aliran udara yang masuk serta keluar paru-paru menjadi kembali normal.

Penyakit asma dapat dipicu oleh beberapa hal, dan mengetahui apa yang menjadi pemicu asma merupakan hal terpenting serta terbukti sangat efektif dalam mengendalikan atau mencegah serangan asma. Bila pemicu asma  sudah diketahui, penderita asma sebaiknya berusaha untuk segera menghindarinya. Berikut ini beberapa hal yang diyakini sebagai penyebab atau pemicu asma, antara lain :
  1. Alergen atau polusi yang bisa menyebabkan iritasi seperti asap terutama (asap rokok/tembakau, kebakaran hutan, dll), tungau, bulu hewan peliharaan (seperti kucing, anjing, dsb), kotoran binatang  (misal kotoran kecoa), serbuk sari tanaman, serbuk ketaman kayu, aroma parfum, pengharum ruangan, aroma cat, larutan atau semprotan bahan kimia (semprotan serangga, dsb), jamur, udara yang tercemar (polusi), debu yang menempel pada karpet, bantal, dll
  2. Aktivitas atau latihan fisik (jasmani) yang berlebihan (berat) seperti balap sepeda, lintas alam, berlari, dsb
  3. Saat kondisi cuaca (udara) dingin di malam atau pagi hari serta ketika terjadi perubahan cuaca ekstrim
  4. Terjadi infeksi saluran pernapasan atas (ISPA) akibat virus dan bakteri
  5. Tertawa, menangis keras, atau emosi yang tidak stabil (stress)
  6. Obat-obatan tertentu seperti aspirin, dsb
  7. Obesitas, dimana timbunan (jaringan) lemak bisa menurunkan fungsi pernapasan dan menimbulkan peradangan

Frekuensi dan tingkat keparahan serangan asma yang dialami penderita asma juga sangat bervariasi, ada yang terjadi hanya sewaktu-waktu (jarang), ringan, sedang, dan berat. Penjelasan lengkap mengenai hal tersebut seperti berikut ini :
  • Jarang, biasanya terjadi 1 bulan sekali, serangan singkat di malam hari, namun paru-paru masih dalam kondisi normal.
  • Ringan, biasanya terjadi 1 kali seminggu atau maksimal 2 kali sebulan, namun kondisi paru-paru masih normal
  • Sedang, serangan mulai mengganggu tidur dan aktivitas setiap hari, kondisi paru-paru mulai tidak normal.
  • Berat (Kronis), sering mendapat serangan asma secara terus menerus sehingga hampir tidak pernah mengalami masa bebas penyakit asma. Sering kambuh setiap malam hari dan kondisi seperti ini bisa berlangsung berbulan-bulan bahkan bertahun-tahun. Pengobatannya memerlukan waktu yang relative lama untuk penyembuhan dan setiap hari harus minum obat.

Bila anda atau anggota keluarga sedang mengalami asma, jangan buru-buru panic karena artikel ini akan menjelaskan cara efektif mengobati dan mencegah asma. Namun perlu menjadi catatan, bahwa mengobati disini bukan serta merta menyembuhkan penyakitnya, namun lebih ke arah upaya untuk menghilangkan gejala penyakit asma sehingga serangan penyakit asma tidak datang kembali. Yuk, simak saja 18 cara paling jitu dan manjur mengobati serta mencegah penyakit asthma (asma atau bengek), berikut ini :
Cara mengobati asma :
1.   Menemukan pemicu asma, misal merokok, hewan peliharaan, aspirin, dsb dan selanjutnya menghindari pemicu-pemicu tersebut.  
2.    Bila terjadi serangan asma secara mendadak atau tiba-tiba yang menimbulkan sesak napas, maka obat paling aman dan efektif untuk melegakan napas secara cepat (reaksi cepat), adalah menggunakan asthma inhaler yang bekerja sebagai bronkodilator yakni obat yang berfungsi melemaskan (merelaksasi) otot-otot saluran pernapasan yang semula menyempit menjadi melebar kembali sehingga penderita mampu bernapas lega kembali. Contoh obatnya Salbutamol aerosol®, Albuterol®, Berotec®, Ventolin®, Lasal®, Terbutalin®, Bricanyl®, Buventol Easyhaler®, Glisend Inhaler®, Ventide Inhaler®, dsb
3.      Cara penggunaan asthma inhaler (misal salbutamol) ini cukup mudah yakni :
  • Posisi boleh berdiri atau duduk tegak dengan dagu terangkat.
  • Buka tutup inhaler dan kocok inhaler terlebih dahulu
  • Masukan corong inhaler dalam mulut, katupkan mulut untuk menjepit inhaler
  • Tarik napas perlahan melalui corong inhaler (seperti menyedot), sambil menekan tombol untuk menyemprotkan obatnya agar terhisap dan masuk ke saluran pernapasan.
  • Tarik napas sekitar 3-5 detik agar obat bisa mencapai paru-paru.
  • Tahan napas sekitar 10 detik, lalu hembuskan secara perlahan-lahan.
  • Penyemprotan cukup 1 kali saja, namun bila dokter menyarankan lebih, maka tunggu sampai sekitar 15 menit. Kocok kembali inhaler, kemudian lakukan penyemprotan seperti cara diatas
  • Bila telah selesai, tutup kembali mulut inhaler dan simpan di tempat kering (suhu kamar).
  • Berkumur-kumur lah untuk menghilangkan sisa obat pada mulut
4.     Selain bronkodilator juga perlu memberikan kortikosteroid yang terbukti efektif dalam terapi asma. Kortikosteroid berfungsi sebagai anti alergi, peradangan tubuh,  mencegah dan mengurangi gejala asma, serta memperbaiki fungsi paru-paru. Kortikosteroid yang diberikan dengan cara dihisap seperti inhaler sehingga obat tersebut bisa langsung menuju saluran pernapasan, contoh merk obatnya Budesonide Aerosol®, Fluticasone (Flixotide inhaler®), Salmeterol (Serevent Inhaler®, Serevent diskus®), formoterol (Foradil®), dsb. Selain itu untuk penderita asma berat, tersedia kortikosteroid oral seperti prednisone®, methylprednisolone®, dsb
5.  Jika tidak tersedia inhaler , anda bisa menggunakan obat asma tablet yang merupakan bronkodilator untuk meringankan asma dan mengatasi sesak napas karena asma. Beberapa merk obat asma seperti : Asthma soho® (produksi Soho), Asmasolon® (produksi Medifarma Lab), Neo Napacin® (produksi Konimex), Teosal® (Dexa Medica) , Ambroxol® (produksi Indofarma), Asmadex® (produksi Dexa Medica), Librentin® ( produksi Westmont ), Grafalin® (Produksi Graha Farma), Salbron® (Produksi Dankos), Ventab® (Produksi Ikapharmindo), Suprasma® (Produksi Dexa Medica), Volmax®, Asmacare®, dsb
6.   Untuk bronkodilator berupa syrup (terutama untuk anak-anak), contoh merk obatnya  Respolin® (Produksi Darya varia), Lasal® (Produksi Lapi ), Fartolin® (Produksi Fahrenheit), dsb
7.   Perbanyak konsumsi sayuran seperti bayam, kubis, dsb serta buah-buahan seperti alpukat, pisang, apel, anggur, dsb serta tumbuhan seperti jahe, kunyit, dsb.
8.  Mengkonsumsi air putih minimal 8 gelas atau 2000 ml per harinya, mengkonsumsi makanan rendah lemak, rendah gula, makan sehat seperti biji-bijian (gandum) sehingga tubuh akan lebih sehat
9.   Bila anda lebih menyukai pengobatan tradisional (alami) untuk mengatasi asma, bisa dengan mengkonsumsi obat alami seperti madu propolis, habbatusauda, minyak zaitun, delima, yang selengkapnya dapat anda baca
10. Bila berbagai cara di atas sudah dilakukan , namun kondisi penderita tidak kunjung membaik dan semakin memburuk, maka segera dibawa ke dokter atau pusat kesehatan untuk mendapatkan penanganan lebih lanjut.

Cara pencegahan asma:
  1. Menghindari alergen atau faktor pemicu asma seperti tidak memelihara hewan berbulu lebat seperti kucing, anjing, dsb, menghindari kontak dengan semprotan atau bahan kimia, debu, termasuk abu vulkanik dari gunung berapi, seperti Merapi, Kelud, Sinabung yang beberapa waktu lalu mengalami letusan/erupsi. Debu vulkanik  sangat berbahaya karena mengandung logam dan silika (serbuk kaca) yang bila masuk ke paru-paru, bisa merusak dan menghancurkan sel alveolar paru-paru sehingga meninggalkan caverna atau lubang-lubang kecil di paru-paru. Gunakan masker jika berada di luar ruangan (rumah).
  2. Ventilasi udara di rumah harus memadai sehingga sirkulasi udara dalam ruangan cukup baik dan udara di dalam ruangan menjadi segar.
  3. Bersihkan tempat tidur setiap hari agar tidak berdebu, gantilah sprei, gorden, dsb secara rutin misal setiap 2 minggu sekali.
  4. Obat asma terdiri dari obat reliever (diberikan ketika serangan asma terjadi) yang bertujuan meredakan serangan asma, misalnya salbutamol. Sedangkan obat controller bertujuan mencegah serangan asma, biasanya diberikan setiap hari kepada penderita asma berat misal Budesonide Aerosol® .
  5. Jangan mengkonsumsi minuman yang bersoda, alcohol, atau merokok (tembakau)
  6. Jangan mengkonsumsi makanan berlemak seperti jeroan, kacang, gorengan (makanan yang berminyak). Penyajian makanan sebaiknya dengan cara direbus atau dikukus.
  7. Jika memungkinkan jangan gunakan karpet pada lantai, sebaiknya gunakan kayu, atau vinyl untuk melapisi lantai. Penggunaan karpet bisa menjadi tempat menempelnya debu yang bisa memicu asma.
  8. Melakukan olahraga secara teratur seperti senam, aerobic, jogging, berjalan, berenang, bersepeda, yoga, dsb sehingga tubuh termasuk saluran pernapasan akan menjadi sehat.

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